Array ( [0] => Array ( [itemID] => 132725 [parentID] => 62369 [type] => article [name] => en-chateau-lafite-rothschild-zh [title] => Chateau Lafite Rothschild [content] =>

Chateau Lafite Rothschild

1st Cru Classe, 1855

33250 Pauillac
+33 5 57 57 79 79
www.lafite.com

Location: AOC Pauillac, next to Chateau Mouton Rothschild in Pauillac, and Chateau Cos d’Estournel in AOC Saint Estephe.

Production: 112ha, Production is split between Chateau Lafite and the second wine, Carruades de Lafite. Grapes that are not used in Carruades or Pauillac DBR will go to the DBR collection, produced by parent company Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite).

Five things you didn't know about Chateau Lafite-Rothschild:

- Although in AOC Pauillac, Lafite includes one 4.5 hectare plot of vines from AOC Saint Estephe (located near to Lafon Rochet) in its wines. The border between the two appellations lies just next to the Lafite vines, and the chateau has had the right (known as a dérogation) to include the cabernet sauvignon grown on this plot, known as Blanquet, since 1868.

- Even before Lafite’s purchase at auction by Baron James de Rothschild in 1868, the estate was being held up as a shining example of a financially-successful enterprise. The sales catalogue at the time of the auction commented upon its ability to make ‘100,000 francs per year simply in wine sales’. It’s safe to say that the Rothschilds have since assured its continued success.

- The estate has an onsite cooperage, which produces all the barrels needed by the Bordeaux estates of DBR (Lafite) and partially provides barrels for DBR (Lafite)'s other estates in Languedoc, Chile and Argentina – around 2,000 barrels per year.

- In the 1880s, Alphonse, Gustave and Edmond de Rothschild at Lafite and James Edouard de Rothschild at Mouton built a primary school in the local village of Mousset to teach, free of charge, the children of their staff and those of local villagers. The school still exists today.

- A second wine called Carruades has been made at Lafite for decades, but was called Moulin des Carruades until 20 years ago. The origin of the name comes from the Carruades plateau, the name of a plot of land next to the chateau’s main vineyards, purchased in 1845 by Lafite. In the early 20th century, Carruades was marketed entirely separately from Lafite before being integrated into its production and becoming the source of its second wine. But it wasn’t until the two names were linked – becoming Carruades de Lafite in the late 1980s – that it really caught the imagination of drinkers

Current owner: Baron Eric de Rothschild, who has headed up Lafite for 40 years. Christophe Salin is managing director of DBR Lafite, working out of Paris.

Most notable previous owner: Starting with Baron James in 1868, all the Rothschilds have been fairly notable. Nicolas-Alexandre, Marquis de Ségur in the 18th century was perhaps the most notable former owner, known as the ‘Prince of Vines’.

Other chateaux owned: Chateau Rieussec, Chateau Duhart Milon, Chateau L’Evangile, Domaine d’Aussieres, Vina Los Vascos, Bodegas Caro, Chateau Paradis Casseuil, Chateau Peyre-Lebade. Plus the branded DBR Collection wines. Penglai Estate DBR-CITIC, Shandong province of China, joint venture with CITIC East China Group (the first commercial vintage is expected in 2016).

Commercial strategy: Wine is sold as a future through the En Primeur system. Négociants sell 100% of production, and 95% is exported. Major markets China, England, USA, Japan, Korea, but sold in over 70 countries worldwide.

Through the centuries:

One of the oldest histories in the region, as you would expect, dating back to at least the 13th century. But serious winemaking didn’t happen at the property until the 17th century, with the arrival of Jacques de Ségur, who began expanding the vineyards in the 1670s. Soon after, Lafite made its way to the English market, and almost immediately was distinguished by high prices and powerful friends. For one year from 1732, for example, British prime minister Robert Walpole bought a barrel of Lafite every three months. Fifty years later, and soon-to-be US president Thomas Jefferson was a fan.

Lafite was clearly always a powerful name, but it’s fame was given a turbo charge when it became part of the Rothschild family in 1868, a decade after it had been named First Growth at the 1855 Universal Exhibition in Paris. Baron James, one of the five Rothschild brothers from Frankfurt, had arrived in Paris in 1812, where he became a successful financier. James invested heavily in railways, helped with the construction of the Gare du Nord station, and invested in mines, foundries, the general urbanization of Paris, besides investing in Pauillac vineyards. With the exception of a five-year occupation by German troops during World War II (when Baron Elie was held as a prisoner of war in Colditz Castle), the estate has remained within the Rothschild family ever since.

Wine consultant: Eric Boissenot, with Charles Chevallier as technical director

Plantation and vineyard work: Grapes (planted to 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 3% Cabernet Franc and 2% Petit Verdot, are harvested by hand, sorted by hand in the vines before a final check once back at the winery. Some satellite imagery is used in the vines to measure ripeness, but most of the appraisal work is done by visual testing, and tasting (‘we prefer tradition to technology’ says Chevallier). Vines under 20 years of age are never used for the First Wine. Vines usually grow until around 80 years of age. The oldest plot, called La Graviere, was planted in 1886.

Vinification: Work in the cellars continues this philosophy – the malolactic fermentation is started naturally, with no added yeasts, and much of the First Wine is fermented in the same wooden vats which have been in place since the 1980s. There are a few new touches of course - an extension to the cellar has been in place since the 2011 harvest, with a range of stainless steel and cement tanks from 40 to 120 hectolitres to increase plot selection (most typically for grapes from the young vines, to ensure their progress is being meticulously tracked).

Terroir: Deep gravel, up to 10 metres in some sections, with aeolian sand and a subsoil of limestone.

Recent improvements or changes: In terms of the wine, Cabernet Franc has recently become increasingly rare in the first wine. In terms of the property itself, one of the key questions at Lafite is who will take over the family firm after Baron Eric, who is now in his 80s. He has three children, Saskia, Pietro and James, and of the three it is perhaps Saskia that is most likely to take over, as she has shown a great interest in the property while her brother Pietro is studying to be an architect in London. But Baron Eric said recently, ‘There is not a monopoly of my branch of the family taking over. There are perhaps others who should be considered.’ One thing for certain – it’s going to be another Rothschild.

Recent Decanter scores (en primeur, other tastings):
2013 en primeur – 18.25 points
2012 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars
2011 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars
2010 en primeur – 20 points, 5 stars

Average bottle price in UK market: £200-£700 per bottle, dependent on vintage.

[disp_order] => 132725 [visible] => 1 [original] => {"en":"
Chateau Lafite Rothschild<\/span>

1st Cru Classe, 1855<\/span>
\n

33250 Pauillac\n
+33 5 57 57 79 79\n
www.lafite.com<\/a><\/p>\n
<\/center>

\n

Location:<\/span> AOC Pauillac, next to Chateau Mouton Rothschild in Pauillac, and Chateau Cos d’Estournel in AOC Saint Estephe.\n\n<\/p>

Production:<\/span> 112ha, Production is split between Chateau Lafite and the second wine, Carruades de Lafite. Grapes that are not used in Carruades or Pauillac DBR will go to the DBR collection, produced by parent company Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite).\n\n<\/p>

Five things you didn't know about Chateau Lafite-Rothschild:\n<\/p>

- Although in AOC Pauillac, Lafite includes one 4.5 hectare plot of vines from AOC Saint Estephe (located near to Lafon Rochet) in its wines. The border between the two appellations lies just next to the Lafite vines, and the chateau has had the right (known as a dérogation) to include the cabernet sauvignon grown on this plot, known as Blanquet, since 1868. \n\n<\/p>

- Even before Lafite’s purchase at auction by Baron James de Rothschild in 1868, the estate was being held up as a shining example of a financially-successful enterprise. The sales catalogue at the time of the auction commented upon its ability to make ‘100,000 francs per year simply in wine sales’. It’s safe to say that the Rothschilds have since assured its continued success.\n\n<\/p>

- The estate has an onsite cooperage, which produces all the barrels needed by the Bordeaux estates of DBR (Lafite) and partially provides barrels for DBR (Lafite)'s other estates in Languedoc, Chile and Argentina – around 2,000 barrels per year. \n\n<\/p>

- In the 1880s, Alphonse, Gustave and Edmond de Rothschild at Lafite and James Edouard de Rothschild at Mouton built a primary school in the local village of Mousset to teach, free of charge, the children of their staff and those of local villagers. The school still exists today.\n\n<\/p>

- A second wine called Carruades has been made at Lafite for decades, but was called Moulin des Carruades until 20 years ago. The origin of the name comes from the Carruades plateau, the name of a plot of land next to the chateau’s main vineyards, purchased in 1845 by Lafite. In the early 20th century, Carruades was marketed entirely separately from Lafite before being integrated into its production and becoming the source of its second wine. But it wasn’t until the two names were linked – becoming Carruades de Lafite in the late 1980s – that it really caught the imagination of drinkers\n\n<\/p>

Current owner:<\/span> Baron Eric de Rothschild, who has headed up Lafite for 40 years. Christophe Salin is managing director of DBR Lafite, working out of Paris.\n\n<\/p>

Most notable previous owner:<\/span> Starting with Baron James in 1868, all the Rothschilds have been fairly notable. Nicolas-Alexandre, Marquis de Ségur in the 18th century was perhaps the most notable former owner, known as the ‘Prince of Vines’.\n\n<\/p>

Other chateaux owned:<\/span> Chateau Rieussec, Chateau Duhart Milon, Chateau L’Evangile, Domaine d’Aussieres, Vina Los Vascos, Bodegas Caro, Chateau Paradis Casseuil, Chateau Peyre-Lebade. Plus the branded DBR Collection wines. Penglai Estate DBR-CITIC, Shandong province of China, joint venture with CITIC East China Group (the first commercial vintage is expected in 2016).\n\n<\/p>

Commercial strategy:<\/span> Wine is sold as a future through the En Primeur system. Négociants sell 100% of production, and 95% is exported. Major markets China, England, USA, Japan, Korea, but sold in over 70 countries worldwide.\n\n<\/p>

Second wine:<\/span> Carruades de Lafite. There is also a third wine, a blend of grapes from both Lafite and Duhart Milon, labelled as Pauillac DBR.\n\n
<\/p>

Through the centuries:<\/span>
<\/p>

One of the oldest histories in the region, as you would expect, dating back to at least the 13th century. But serious winemaking didn’t happen at the property until the 17th century, with the arrival of Jacques de Ségur, who began expanding the vineyards in the 1670s. Soon after, Lafite made its way to the English market, and almost immediately was distinguished by high prices and powerful friends. For one year from 1732, for example, British prime minister Robert Walpole bought a barrel of Lafite every three months. Fifty years later, and soon-to-be US president Thomas Jefferson was a fan.\n\n<\/p>

Lafite was clearly always a powerful name, but it’s fame was given a turbo charge when it became part of the Rothschild family in 1868, a decade after it had been named First Growth at the 1855 Universal Exhibition in Paris. Baron James, one of the five Rothschild brothers from Frankfurt, had arrived in Paris in 1812, where he became a successful financier. James invested heavily in railways, helped with the construction of the Gare du Nord station, and invested in mines, foundries, the general urbanization of Paris, besides investing in Pauillac vineyards. With the exception of a five-year occupation by German troops during World War II (when Baron Elie was held as a prisoner of war in Colditz Castle), the estate has remained within the Rothschild family ever since.\n\n<\/p>

Wine consultant:<\/span> Eric Boissenot, with Charles Chevallier as technical director\n\n<\/p>

Plantation and vineyard work:<\/span> Grapes (planted to 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 3% Cabernet Franc and 2% Petit Verdot, are harvested by hand, sorted by hand in the vines before a final check once back at the winery. Some satellite imagery is used in the vines to measure ripeness, but most of the appraisal work is done by visual testing, and tasting (‘we prefer tradition to technology’ says Chevallier). Vines under 20 years of age are never used for the First Wine. Vines usually grow until around 80 years of age. The oldest plot, called La Graviere, was planted in 1886. \n\n<\/p>

Vinification:<\/span> Work in the cellars continues this philosophy – the malolactic fermentation is started naturally, with no added yeasts, and much of the First Wine is fermented in the same wooden vats which have been in place since the 1980s. There are a few new touches of course - an extension to the cellar has been in place since the 2011 harvest, with a range of stainless steel and cement tanks from 40 to 120 hectolitres to increase plot selection (most typically for grapes from the young vines, to ensure their progress is being meticulously tracked). \n\n<\/p>

Terroir:<\/span> Deep gravel, up to 10 metres in some sections, with aeolian sand and a subsoil of limestone.\n\n<\/p>

Recent improvements or changes:<\/span> In terms of the wine, Cabernet Franc has recently become increasingly rare in the first wine. In terms of the property itself, one of the key questions at Lafite is who will take over the family firm after Baron Eric, who is now in his 80s. He has three children, Saskia, Pietro and James, and of the three it is perhaps Saskia that is most likely to take over, as she has shown a great interest in the property while her brother Pietro is studying to be an architect in London. But Baron Eric said recently, ‘There is not a monopoly of my branch of the family taking over. There are perhaps others who should be considered.’ One thing for certain – it’s going to be another Rothschild.\n\n<\/p>

Recent Decanter scores (en primeur, other tastings<\/i>):\n<\/span>
2013 en primeur – 18.25 points
2012 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars
2011 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars\n
2010 en primeur – 20 points, 5 stars\n
<\/p>

Average bottle price in UK market:<\/span> £200-£700 per bottle, dependent on vintage<\/p>


\n\n

Estate Profile Index Page>><\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

拉菲古堡\/<\/span>拉菲罗斯柴尔德酒庄<\/span>

\n(Chateau Lafite Rothschild)

1855年评级一级酒庄<\/span>

\n

33250 波雅克\n
+33 5 57 57 79 79\n
www.lafite.com<\/a><\/p>
\n<\/center>

\n\n

位置:<\/span>波雅克AOC(AOC Pauillac),邻近同属波雅克的木桐罗斯柴尔德酒庄(Chateau Mouton Rothschild),以及属于圣爱斯泰夫法定产区(AOC Saint Estephe)的爱士图尔酒庄(Chateau Cos d’Estournel)。\n\n<\/p>

产量:<\/span>112公顷葡萄园,用于酿造拉菲古堡(Chateau Lafite)和第二标拉菲珍宝 (小拉菲,Carruades de Lafite)两款葡萄酒。质量不足以用于第三标Pauillac DBR的葡萄被用于酿造母公司拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团出品的精选系列(DBR Collection)。\n\n<\/p>

拉菲古堡之你所不知道的五件趣事:\n\n<\/p>

-虽然拉菲古堡位于法定产区波雅克,它也同时在法定产区圣爱斯泰夫拥有一片4.5公顷的葡萄园(离拉芳酒庄Lafon Rochet很近)。虽然波雅克和圣爱斯泰夫两个法定产区以拉菲古堡的葡萄园为边界,但是从1868年开始,拉菲古堡得到特许(dérogation),得以使用这片位于圣埃斯泰夫的葡萄园(被称为Blanquet)中出产的赤霞珠。\n\n<\/p>

-拉菲在1868年被詹姆斯•罗斯柴尔德男爵买下之前,就已经因其成功的商业运营而广受赞誉。拍卖目录中记载道:拉菲古堡“仅通过销售葡萄酒即可创造每年100,000法郎的收入”。可以说,罗斯柴尔德家族自从收购拉菲之后延续了其成功之路。\n\n<\/p>

-酒庄中有一个制桶厂,每年生产大约2000个木桶,供拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团的所有波尔多酒庄使用,并为该集团在朗格多克、智利和阿根廷的酒庄提供部分橡木桶。\n\n<\/p>

-19世纪80年代,拉菲古堡的庄主阿尔方索、古斯塔夫和埃德蒙•罗思柴尔德三兄弟与木桐酒庄的拥有者詹姆斯•爱德华都•罗斯柴尔德合作,在当地的村庄Mousset建起了一座小学,免费授课给酒庄员工和当地村民的孩子们,这所学校被留存至今。\n\n<\/p>

-拉菲古堡的第二标——拉菲珍宝(Carruades de Lafite)已经有数十年的历史,二十年前的名字是“Moulin des Carruades”。这个名字出自当时酒庄主要葡萄园旁边的一片土地 “Carruades高地”,这片土地于1845年被拉菲古堡买下。20世纪早期, Carruades和拉菲古堡葡萄酒的营销渠道是完全独立的,之后Carruades并入拉菲名下,Carruades高地也成了酿造酒庄第二标的葡萄产地。不过直到1980年代后期Carruades挂上了拉菲的名字,才真正开始吸引葡萄酒爱好者们的注意力。\n\n<\/p>

现任庄主:<\/span>埃里克•罗斯柴尔德男爵。他已经引领拉菲古堡走过40年的岁月。Christophe Salin任拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团总裁,在巴黎工作。\n\n<\/p>

最值得一提的前任庄主:<\/span>从1868年买下酒庄的詹姆斯•罗斯柴尔德男爵开始,罗斯柴尔德家族的继承人都相当引人瞩目。18世纪的塞居尔侯爵(Marquis de Ségur)尼古拉斯-亚历山大可能是其中最声名显赫的庄主,被称为“葡萄王子”。\n\n<\/p>

旗下其他酒庄:<\/span>莱斯古堡(Chateau Rieussec)[1]<\/sup>、杜哈米隆古堡(Chateau Duhart Milon)[2]<\/sup>、乐王吉古堡(Chateau L’Evangile)、奥希耶庄园(Domaine d’Aussieres)、巴斯克酒庄(Vina Los Vascos)、凯洛酒庄(Bodegas Caro)、卡瑟天堂古堡(Chateau Paradis Casseuil)、岩石古堡(Chateau Peyre-Lebade),以及拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团精选系列。此外,还有与中信华东(集团)有限公司组建的合资公司、位于中国山东省的蓬莱罗斯柴尔德男爵中信酒业(第一个商业化年份预计为2016年份)。<\/p>\n

商业策略:<\/b>葡萄酒通过期酒系统以期货形式出售。100%的产量由中间商(Négociants)销售,其中95%出口。主要市场包括中国、英国、美国、日本、韩国,在世界上70多个国家有售。\n\n<\/p>

第二标葡萄酒:<\/span>拉菲珍宝。拉菲酒庄还有第三标葡萄酒,使用拉菲古堡和杜哈米隆古堡出产的葡萄混酿而成,酒标是“Pauillac DBR”。\n\n<\/p>

酒庄历史:<\/span>
<\/p>

该地区最古老的酒庄之一,其历史至少可以追溯到13世纪,但是真正意义上的酿酒活动则从17世纪才开始。17世纪70年代开始,Jacques de Ségur大规模扩建葡萄园。随后拉菲很快走入英国市场,几乎立刻就被赋予昂贵的价格,并赢得了显赫的支持者。举例来说,自1732年起,英国首相罗伯特•沃波尔每隔三个月就会买一桶拉菲葡萄酒。50年后,即将成为美国总统的托马斯•杰斐逊也成了拉菲葡萄酒的忠实拥趸。\n\n<\/p>

拉菲显然一直都是非常有威望的一个名字。不过1855年的巴黎世界博览会中它被评为一级酒庄,十三年后的1868年又被罗斯柴尔德家族收入旗下,都令它进一步声名大增。来自法兰克福的罗斯柴尔德家族五兄弟之一的詹姆斯男爵1812年来到巴黎,成为了一位成功的金融家。詹姆斯在注资波雅克葡萄园的同时,还在铁路上投入大笔资金,协助建成了巴黎北站,并投资采矿业、铸造业和巴黎的城市化建设。除了在第二次世界大战期间被德军占领的五年以外(期间埃里男爵沦为战俘,被囚禁在Colditz城堡),酒庄一直在罗斯柴尔德家族的管辖之下。\n\n<\/p>

葡萄酒顾问:<\/span>Eric Boissenot。Charles Chevallier担任酒庄的技术总监。\n\n<\/p>

葡萄种植比例和作业方式:<\/span>葡萄品种为70%赤霞珠,25%梅乐,3%品丽珠和2%小维尔多,全部手工采摘分类,运送回酒窖后还会被重新检查。卫星图像被用于检验葡萄的成熟度,但大部分的葡萄是通过人工查验、品尝挑选的(技术总监Chevallier曾说:“比起高科技,我们更青睐传统方式”)。20年以下树龄的葡萄藤绝不会被用于酿造第一标的拉菲古堡。葡萄藤一般能够存活80年,最古老的葡萄园La Graviere则种植于1886年。\n\n<\/p>

酿酒:<\/span>酿酒工作依然遵循传统为先的理念。苹果酸-乳酸发酵以自然状态开始,不添加酵母;第一标葡萄酒的大部分在20世纪80年代即开始使用的大木桶中发酵。当然,传统中也有技术革新:2011年收获季之后,拉菲古堡的酒窖得到扩建,引入了数个40-120百升容量的不锈钢和水泥槽,以便更细致地对不同葡萄田生产的葡萄进行分类筛选(最典型的作用是对来自年轻葡萄藤的葡萄的发酵过程进行细致的追踪)。\n\n<\/p>

风土:<\/span>碎砂石地基,有些地方深达10米。含有风积沙(aeolian sand),以石灰岩为底土。\n\n<\/p>

近期动向:<\/span>在葡萄酒方面,第一标葡萄酒已经越来越少使用品丽珠葡萄了。在酒庄方面,对拉菲而言最重要的问题之一是在年逾80的埃里克•罗斯柴尔德男爵之后,会由谁来继承酒庄。埃里克有三个孩子:Saskia、Pietro和James;三个人之中Saskia最有可能成为继承者,因为她对酒庄表现了极大的兴趣。弟弟Pietro正在伦敦学习,并即将成为一位建筑师。可是埃里克男爵曾突如其来地表示:“拉菲古堡的继承人并非只能出自我的直系亲属,罗斯柴尔德家族中的其他人也可能被列入考虑。”不过有一点是肯定的——继承者一定会是罗斯柴尔德家族的成员。\n\n<\/p>

近期Decanter评分(来自期酒评分和其他品鉴):
<\/span>2013期酒– 18.25 分
2012期酒– 5星\/18.5 分
2011期酒– 5星\/18.5 分\n
2010期酒– 5星\/20 分\n

<\/p>

英国市场平均每瓶价格:<\/span>每瓶£200-£700,根据年份有所浮动\n\n\n<\/p>

[1]<\/sup> Chateau Rieussec:莱斯古堡,也译拉菲丽丝酒庄或琉塞克酒庄\n
[2]<\/sup> Chateau Duhart Milon:杜哈米隆古堡,也译都夏美隆酒庄
<\/p>


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名庄档案目录(更新中)>><\/a><\/b><\/b><\/p>"} [checked] => 0 [complete] => {"id":"386","title":{"en":"Chateau Lafite Rothschild","zh":"拉菲古堡\/拉菲罗斯柴尔德酒庄"},"intro":{"en":"1st Cru Classe, 1855","zh":"[名庄档案] 1855年评级一级酒庄"},"article":{"en":"

Chateau Lafite Rothschild<\/span>

1st Cru Classe, 1855<\/span>
\n

33250 Pauillac\n
+33 5 57 57 79 79\n
www.lafite.com<\/a><\/p>\n
<\/center>

\n

Location:<\/span> AOC Pauillac, next to Chateau Mouton Rothschild in Pauillac, and Chateau Cos d’Estournel in AOC Saint Estephe.\n\n<\/p>

Production:<\/span> 112ha, Production is split between Chateau Lafite and the second wine, Carruades de Lafite. Grapes that are not used in Carruades or Pauillac DBR will go to the DBR collection, produced by parent company Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite).\n\n<\/p>

Five things you didn't know about Chateau Lafite-Rothschild:\n<\/p>

- Although in AOC Pauillac, Lafite includes one 4.5 hectare plot of vines from AOC Saint Estephe (located near to Lafon Rochet) in its wines. The border between the two appellations lies just next to the Lafite vines, and the chateau has had the right (known as a dérogation) to include the cabernet sauvignon grown on this plot, known as Blanquet, since 1868. \n\n<\/p>

- Even before Lafite’s purchase at auction by Baron James de Rothschild in 1868, the estate was being held up as a shining example of a financially-successful enterprise. The sales catalogue at the time of the auction commented upon its ability to make ‘100,000 francs per year simply in wine sales’. It’s safe to say that the Rothschilds have since assured its continued success.\n\n<\/p>

- The estate has an onsite cooperage, which produces all the barrels needed by the Bordeaux estates of DBR (Lafite) and partially provides barrels for DBR (Lafite)'s other estates in Languedoc, Chile and Argentina – around 2,000 barrels per year. \n\n<\/p>

- In the 1880s, Alphonse, Gustave and Edmond de Rothschild at Lafite and James Edouard de Rothschild at Mouton built a primary school in the local village of Mousset to teach, free of charge, the children of their staff and those of local villagers. The school still exists today.\n\n<\/p>

- A second wine called Carruades has been made at Lafite for decades, but was called Moulin des Carruades until 20 years ago. The origin of the name comes from the Carruades plateau, the name of a plot of land next to the chateau’s main vineyards, purchased in 1845 by Lafite. In the early 20th century, Carruades was marketed entirely separately from Lafite before being integrated into its production and becoming the source of its second wine. But it wasn’t until the two names were linked – becoming Carruades de Lafite in the late 1980s – that it really caught the imagination of drinkers\n\n<\/p>

Current owner:<\/span> Baron Eric de Rothschild, who has headed up Lafite for 40 years. Christophe Salin is managing director of DBR Lafite, working out of Paris.\n\n<\/p>

Most notable previous owner:<\/span> Starting with Baron James in 1868, all the Rothschilds have been fairly notable. Nicolas-Alexandre, Marquis de Ségur in the 18th century was perhaps the most notable former owner, known as the ‘Prince of Vines’.\n\n<\/p>

Other chateaux owned:<\/span> Chateau Rieussec, Chateau Duhart Milon, Chateau L’Evangile, Domaine d’Aussieres, Vina Los Vascos, Bodegas Caro, Chateau Paradis Casseuil, Chateau Peyre-Lebade. Plus the branded DBR Collection wines. Penglai Estate DBR-CITIC, Shandong province of China, joint venture with CITIC East China Group (the first commercial vintage is expected in 2016).\n\n<\/p>

Commercial strategy:<\/span> Wine is sold as a future through the En Primeur system. Négociants sell 100% of production, and 95% is exported. Major markets China, England, USA, Japan, Korea, but sold in over 70 countries worldwide.\n\n<\/p>

Second wine:<\/span> Carruades de Lafite. There is also a third wine, a blend of grapes from both Lafite and Duhart Milon, labelled as Pauillac DBR.\n\n
<\/p>

Through the centuries:<\/span>
<\/p>

One of the oldest histories in the region, as you would expect, dating back to at least the 13th century. But serious winemaking didn’t happen at the property until the 17th century, with the arrival of Jacques de Ségur, who began expanding the vineyards in the 1670s. Soon after, Lafite made its way to the English market, and almost immediately was distinguished by high prices and powerful friends. For one year from 1732, for example, British prime minister Robert Walpole bought a barrel of Lafite every three months. Fifty years later, and soon-to-be US president Thomas Jefferson was a fan.\n\n<\/p>

Lafite was clearly always a powerful name, but it’s fame was given a turbo charge when it became part of the Rothschild family in 1868, a decade after it had been named First Growth at the 1855 Universal Exhibition in Paris. Baron James, one of the five Rothschild brothers from Frankfurt, had arrived in Paris in 1812, where he became a successful financier. James invested heavily in railways, helped with the construction of the Gare du Nord station, and invested in mines, foundries, the general urbanization of Paris, besides investing in Pauillac vineyards. With the exception of a five-year occupation by German troops during World War II (when Baron Elie was held as a prisoner of war in Colditz Castle), the estate has remained within the Rothschild family ever since.\n\n<\/p>

Wine consultant:<\/span> Eric Boissenot, with Charles Chevallier as technical director\n\n<\/p>

Plantation and vineyard work:<\/span> Grapes (planted to 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 3% Cabernet Franc and 2% Petit Verdot, are harvested by hand, sorted by hand in the vines before a final check once back at the winery. Some satellite imagery is used in the vines to measure ripeness, but most of the appraisal work is done by visual testing, and tasting (‘we prefer tradition to technology’ says Chevallier). Vines under 20 years of age are never used for the First Wine. Vines usually grow until around 80 years of age. The oldest plot, called La Graviere, was planted in 1886. \n\n<\/p>

Vinification:<\/span> Work in the cellars continues this philosophy – the malolactic fermentation is started naturally, with no added yeasts, and much of the First Wine is fermented in the same wooden vats which have been in place since the 1980s. There are a few new touches of course - an extension to the cellar has been in place since the 2011 harvest, with a range of stainless steel and cement tanks from 40 to 120 hectolitres to increase plot selection (most typically for grapes from the young vines, to ensure their progress is being meticulously tracked). \n\n<\/p>

Terroir:<\/span> Deep gravel, up to 10 metres in some sections, with aeolian sand and a subsoil of limestone.\n\n<\/p>

Recent improvements or changes:<\/span> In terms of the wine, Cabernet Franc has recently become increasingly rare in the first wine. In terms of the property itself, one of the key questions at Lafite is who will take over the family firm after Baron Eric, who is now in his 80s. He has three children, Saskia, Pietro and James, and of the three it is perhaps Saskia that is most likely to take over, as she has shown a great interest in the property while her brother Pietro is studying to be an architect in London. But Baron Eric said recently, ‘There is not a monopoly of my branch of the family taking over. There are perhaps others who should be considered.’ One thing for certain – it’s going to be another Rothschild.\n\n<\/p>

Recent Decanter scores (en primeur, other tastings<\/i>):\n<\/span>
2013 en primeur – 18.25 points
2012 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars
2011 en primeur – 18.5 points, 5 stars\n
2010 en primeur – 20 points, 5 stars\n
<\/p>

Average bottle price in UK market:<\/span> £200-£700 per bottle, dependent on vintage<\/p>


\n\n

Estate Profile Index Page>><\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

拉菲古堡\/<\/span>拉菲罗斯柴尔德酒庄<\/span>

\n(Chateau Lafite Rothschild)

1855年评级一级酒庄<\/span>

\n

33250 波雅克\n
+33 5 57 57 79 79\n
www.lafite.com<\/a><\/p>
\n<\/center>

\n\n

位置:<\/span>波雅克AOC(AOC Pauillac),邻近同属波雅克的木桐罗斯柴尔德酒庄(Chateau Mouton Rothschild),以及属于圣爱斯泰夫法定产区(AOC Saint Estephe)的爱士图尔酒庄(Chateau Cos d’Estournel)。\n\n<\/p>

产量:<\/span>112公顷葡萄园,用于酿造拉菲古堡(Chateau Lafite)和第二标拉菲珍宝 (小拉菲,Carruades de Lafite)两款葡萄酒。质量不足以用于第三标Pauillac DBR的葡萄被用于酿造母公司拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团出品的精选系列(DBR Collection)。\n\n<\/p>

拉菲古堡之你所不知道的五件趣事:\n\n<\/p>

-虽然拉菲古堡位于法定产区波雅克,它也同时在法定产区圣爱斯泰夫拥有一片4.5公顷的葡萄园(离拉芳酒庄Lafon Rochet很近)。虽然波雅克和圣爱斯泰夫两个法定产区以拉菲古堡的葡萄园为边界,但是从1868年开始,拉菲古堡得到特许(dérogation),得以使用这片位于圣埃斯泰夫的葡萄园(被称为Blanquet)中出产的赤霞珠。\n\n<\/p>

-拉菲在1868年被詹姆斯•罗斯柴尔德男爵买下之前,就已经因其成功的商业运营而广受赞誉。拍卖目录中记载道:拉菲古堡“仅通过销售葡萄酒即可创造每年100,000法郎的收入”。可以说,罗斯柴尔德家族自从收购拉菲之后延续了其成功之路。\n\n<\/p>

-酒庄中有一个制桶厂,每年生产大约2000个木桶,供拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团的所有波尔多酒庄使用,并为该集团在朗格多克、智利和阿根廷的酒庄提供部分橡木桶。\n\n<\/p>

-19世纪80年代,拉菲古堡的庄主阿尔方索、古斯塔夫和埃德蒙•罗思柴尔德三兄弟与木桐酒庄的拥有者詹姆斯•爱德华都•罗斯柴尔德合作,在当地的村庄Mousset建起了一座小学,免费授课给酒庄员工和当地村民的孩子们,这所学校被留存至今。\n\n<\/p>

-拉菲古堡的第二标——拉菲珍宝(Carruades de Lafite)已经有数十年的历史,二十年前的名字是“Moulin des Carruades”。这个名字出自当时酒庄主要葡萄园旁边的一片土地 “Carruades高地”,这片土地于1845年被拉菲古堡买下。20世纪早期, Carruades和拉菲古堡葡萄酒的营销渠道是完全独立的,之后Carruades并入拉菲名下,Carruades高地也成了酿造酒庄第二标的葡萄产地。不过直到1980年代后期Carruades挂上了拉菲的名字,才真正开始吸引葡萄酒爱好者们的注意力。\n\n<\/p>

现任庄主:<\/span>埃里克•罗斯柴尔德男爵。他已经引领拉菲古堡走过40年的岁月。Christophe Salin任拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团总裁,在巴黎工作。\n\n<\/p>

最值得一提的前任庄主:<\/span>从1868年买下酒庄的詹姆斯•罗斯柴尔德男爵开始,罗斯柴尔德家族的继承人都相当引人瞩目。18世纪的塞居尔侯爵(Marquis de Ségur)尼古拉斯-亚历山大可能是其中最声名显赫的庄主,被称为“葡萄王子”。\n\n<\/p>

旗下其他酒庄:<\/span>莱斯古堡(Chateau Rieussec)[1]<\/sup>、杜哈米隆古堡(Chateau Duhart Milon)[2]<\/sup>、乐王吉古堡(Chateau L’Evangile)、奥希耶庄园(Domaine d’Aussieres)、巴斯克酒庄(Vina Los Vascos)、凯洛酒庄(Bodegas Caro)、卡瑟天堂古堡(Chateau Paradis Casseuil)、岩石古堡(Chateau Peyre-Lebade),以及拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团精选系列。此外,还有与中信华东(集团)有限公司组建的合资公司、位于中国山东省的蓬莱罗斯柴尔德男爵中信酒业(第一个商业化年份预计为2016年份)。<\/p>\n

商业策略:<\/b>葡萄酒通过期酒系统以期货形式出售。100%的产量由中间商(Négociants)销售,其中95%出口。主要市场包括中国、英国、美国、日本、韩国,在世界上70多个国家有售。\n\n<\/p>

第二标葡萄酒:<\/span>拉菲珍宝。拉菲酒庄还有第三标葡萄酒,使用拉菲古堡和杜哈米隆古堡出产的葡萄混酿而成,酒标是“Pauillac DBR”。\n\n<\/p>

酒庄历史:<\/span>
<\/p>

该地区最古老的酒庄之一,其历史至少可以追溯到13世纪,但是真正意义上的酿酒活动则从17世纪才开始。17世纪70年代开始,Jacques de Ségur大规模扩建葡萄园。随后拉菲很快走入英国市场,几乎立刻就被赋予昂贵的价格,并赢得了显赫的支持者。举例来说,自1732年起,英国首相罗伯特•沃波尔每隔三个月就会买一桶拉菲葡萄酒。50年后,即将成为美国总统的托马斯•杰斐逊也成了拉菲葡萄酒的忠实拥趸。\n\n<\/p>

拉菲显然一直都是非常有威望的一个名字。不过1855年的巴黎世界博览会中它被评为一级酒庄,十三年后的1868年又被罗斯柴尔德家族收入旗下,都令它进一步声名大增。来自法兰克福的罗斯柴尔德家族五兄弟之一的詹姆斯男爵1812年来到巴黎,成为了一位成功的金融家。詹姆斯在注资波雅克葡萄园的同时,还在铁路上投入大笔资金,协助建成了巴黎北站,并投资采矿业、铸造业和巴黎的城市化建设。除了在第二次世界大战期间被德军占领的五年以外(期间埃里男爵沦为战俘,被囚禁在Colditz城堡),酒庄一直在罗斯柴尔德家族的管辖之下。\n\n<\/p>

葡萄酒顾问:<\/span>Eric Boissenot。Charles Chevallier担任酒庄的技术总监。\n\n<\/p>

葡萄种植比例和作业方式:<\/span>葡萄品种为70%赤霞珠,25%梅乐,3%品丽珠和2%小维尔多,全部手工采摘分类,运送回酒窖后还会被重新检查。卫星图像被用于检验葡萄的成熟度,但大部分的葡萄是通过人工查验、品尝挑选的(技术总监Chevallier曾说:“比起高科技,我们更青睐传统方式”)。20年以下树龄的葡萄藤绝不会被用于酿造第一标的拉菲古堡。葡萄藤一般能够存活80年,最古老的葡萄园La Graviere则种植于1886年。\n\n<\/p>

酿酒:<\/span>酿酒工作依然遵循传统为先的理念。苹果酸-乳酸发酵以自然状态开始,不添加酵母;第一标葡萄酒的大部分在20世纪80年代即开始使用的大木桶中发酵。当然,传统中也有技术革新:2011年收获季之后,拉菲古堡的酒窖得到扩建,引入了数个40-120百升容量的不锈钢和水泥槽,以便更细致地对不同葡萄田生产的葡萄进行分类筛选(最典型的作用是对来自年轻葡萄藤的葡萄的发酵过程进行细致的追踪)。\n\n<\/p>

风土:<\/span>碎砂石地基,有些地方深达10米。含有风积沙(aeolian sand),以石灰岩为底土。\n\n<\/p>

近期动向:<\/span>在葡萄酒方面,第一标葡萄酒已经越来越少使用品丽珠葡萄了。在酒庄方面,对拉菲而言最重要的问题之一是在年逾80的埃里克•罗斯柴尔德男爵之后,会由谁来继承酒庄。埃里克有三个孩子:Saskia、Pietro和James;三个人之中Saskia最有可能成为继承者,因为她对酒庄表现了极大的兴趣。弟弟Pietro正在伦敦学习,并即将成为一位建筑师。可是埃里克男爵曾突如其来地表示:“拉菲古堡的继承人并非只能出自我的直系亲属,罗斯柴尔德家族中的其他人也可能被列入考虑。”不过有一点是肯定的——继承者一定会是罗斯柴尔德家族的成员。\n\n<\/p>

近期Decanter评分(来自期酒评分和其他品鉴):
<\/span>2013期酒– 18.25 分
2012期酒– 5星\/18.5 分
2011期酒– 5星\/18.5 分\n
2010期酒– 5星\/20 分\n

<\/p>

英国市场平均每瓶价格:<\/span>每瓶£200-£700,根据年份有所浮动\n\n\n<\/p>

[1]<\/sup> Chateau Rieussec:莱斯古堡,也译拉菲丽丝酒庄或琉塞克酒庄\n
[2]<\/sup> Chateau Duhart Milon:杜哈米隆古堡,也译都夏美隆酒庄
<\/p>


\n
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名庄档案目录(更新中)>><\/a><\/b><\/b><\/p>"},"published":"2013-04-01","category":"Estate Profiles","related_articles":"413,388,389,390,391,392,393","banner_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Estates\/Chateau-Lafite-Rothschild.jpg","content_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Estates\/Chateau-Lafite-Rothschild-T.jpg","author_id":"8"} [original_category] => Estate Profiles [original_id] => 386 [uri] => chateau-lafite-rothschild [date] => 1455062400 [excerpt] => 1st Cru Classe, 1855 [author] => 132340 [translator] => [category] => [meta_title] => Chateau Lafite Rothschild [meta_description] => Chateau Lafite Rothschild [meta_keywords] => Chateau Lafite Rothschild [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => https://decanter.s3.amazonaws.com/assets/images/Estates/Chateau-Lafite-Rothschild.jpg [path] => assets/images/article/full [src] => /assets/images/article/full/remote_estates-chateau-lafite-rothschild.jpg [width] => [height] => [dimensions] => [exists] => 1 [remote] => 1 ) [tags] => Chateau Lafite Rothschild [related_articles] => 132745, 132726, 132727, 132728, 132729, 132730, 132731 [related_regions] => 133530, 133571 [related_grapes] => [related_reviews] => [related_producer] => [uri_en] => chateau-lafite-rothschild [uri_zh] => 拉菲古堡-拉菲罗斯柴尔德酒庄 [related_tastings] => [display_author_bio] => [first] => 1 [clear-classes] => [processed] => basic [section_category] => Array ( [itemID] => 62369 [parentID] => 9629 [type] => menus [name] => en-producers-zh [title] => Producers [content] => [disp_order] => 9633 [visible] => 1 [url] => producers [section_type] => 9627 [show] => 1 [clear-classes] => clear-1 [urls] => Array ( [en] => producers [zh] => 名庄档案 ) [link] => /knowledge/producers/ ) [display_category] => Array ( [title] => Producers [link] => /en/knowledge/producers/ ) [event_link] => [link_en] => /en/knowledge/producers/chateau-lafite-rothschild [link_zh] => /zh/葡萄酒学习/名庄档案/拉菲古堡-拉菲罗斯柴尔德酒庄 [link] => /en/knowledge/producers/chateau-lafite-rothschild [date_formatted] => 10 February 2016 ) [1] => Array ( [itemID] => 133444 [parentID] => 9630 [type] => article [name] => en-mavrotragano-red-zh [title] => Mavrotragano (red) [content] =>

[Grape Variety]

The dark-skinned Mavrotgrano, meaning ‘black crisp’, was once almost extinct and now occupying just 2% of the vineyard area on the Greek island of Santorini.

Mavrotragano grape

The berries are small, sugar levels high and yields low, and the tannins need careful handling or they will be rustic and tough.

It was originally used to add aroma to the island's sweet wines. Winemaker Haridimos Hatzidakis was the first to experiment with a dry varietal wine while working for Boutari in the mid-1980s. Paris Sigalas, meanwhile, was making an intense and aromatic sweet version. Both growers have regularly produced dry wines since the mid-1990s and have now been joined by a few others, including T-Oinos on the island of Tinos and Evangelos Gerovassiliou in Epanomi on the mainland, who includes a small amount of Mavrotragano with Limnio and Mavroudi in his top red Avaton.

Dry varietal wines are distinctively rich in explosive, wild dark fruit and often earthy and spicy. The best wines are aromatic with fresh acidity and firm, chewy tannins, with a growing following and rising grape prices.

Wine Grapes by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org

[disp_order] => 133444 [visible] => 1 [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => https://decanter.s3.amazonaws.com/assets/images/Glossary/Grape-Varieties/Mavrotragano-New-Wines-of-Greece.jpg [path] => assets/images/article/full [src] => /assets/images/article/full/remote_glossary-grape-varieties-mavrotragano-new-wines-of-greece.jpg [width] => [height] => [dimensions] => [exists] => 1 [remote] => 1 ) [uri] => mavrotragano-red [uri_en] => mavrotragano-red [uri_zh] => 马特甘诺-红 [excerpt] => The dark-skinned Mavrotgrano, meaning ‘black crisp’, was once almost extinct and now occupying just 2% of the vineyard area on the Greek island of Santorini. [translator] => [category] => [meta_title] => Mavrotragano (red) [meta_description] => [original] => {"en":"

[Grape Variety]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

The dark-skinned Mavrotgrano, meaning ‘black crisp’, was once almost extinct and now occupying just 2% of the vineyard area on the Greek island of Santorini.<\/p>\n\n

\"Mavrotragano
Image: Mavrotragano<\/i><\/center>
\n\n

The berries are small, sugar levels high and yields low, and the tannins need careful handling or they will be rustic and tough.<\/p>\n\n

It was originally used to add aroma to the island's sweet wines. Winemaker Haridimos Hatzidakis was the first to experiment with a dry varietal wine while working for Boutari in the mid-1980s. Paris Sigalas, meanwhile, was making an intense and aromatic sweet version. Both growers have regularly produced dry wines since the mid-1990s and have now been joined by a few others, including T-Oinos on the island of Tinos and Evangelos Gerovassiliou in Epanomi on the mainland, who includes a small amount of Mavrotragano with Limnio and Mavroudi in his top red Avaton.<\/p>\n\n

Dry varietal wines are distinctively rich in explosive, wild dark fruit and often earthy and spicy. The best wines are aromatic with fresh acidity and firm, chewy tannins, with a growing following and rising grape prices.<\/p>
\n\n

Wine Grapes<\/i> by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org<\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

[葡萄品种]<\/b> 其他译名:黑塔加诺\/摩塔伽诺<\/p>\n\n

马特甘诺的名字意为“黑色(mavro)而清脆的(tragano)”。这种深色果皮的葡萄品种曾经一度面临绝种,现在也只占希腊圣托里尼岛葡萄园面积的2%。<\/p>\n\n

\"马特甘诺葡萄\"
图片:马特甘诺<\/i><\/center>
\n\n

这个葡萄品种果实体积小、含糖量高、产量低,单宁需要精心控制,否则会显得粗糙不精致。<\/p>\n\n

这种葡萄原本用来为岛上出产的甜葡萄酒增加香气。20世纪80年代中期,酿酒师Haridimos Hatzidakis在Boutari工作时,率先试验用这种葡萄酿造单一品种干型葡萄酒。同一时期,Paris Sigalas则使用这种葡萄酿造风味强劲、芳香馥郁的甜葡萄酒。20世纪90年代起,两位酿酒师都不断酿造干型马特甘诺葡萄酒,现在又有一些酿酒商加入他们的行列,其中包括蒂诺斯岛(Tinos)的T-Oinos和位于希腊大陆上的Epanomi镇的Evangelos Gerovassiliou。后者会将少量马特甘诺与琳慕诗(Limnio)和马弗罗蒂(Mavroudi)加入其顶级红葡萄酒Avaton。<\/p>\n\n

单一品种干型马特甘诺葡萄酒带有如爆炸般的大量特殊的野生深色水果风味,并且通常带有泥土和辛辣的味道。品质最为出众的马特甘诺葡萄酒芳香馥郁、酸度清爽,并有坚实而有嚼劲的单宁,其果实价格也越来越高。<\/p>
\n\n

本词条来源:《酿酒葡萄》一书由葡萄酒大师Jancis Robinson、葡萄酒大师Julia Harding以及José Vouillamoz合著;www.winegrapes.org<\/a>。<\/p>
\n\n

(编译:冯帆\/Nina Fan Feng)<\/p>

"} [author] => 132337 [date] => 1455062400 [checked] => 0 [complete] => {"id":"1159","title":{"en":"Mavrotragano (red)","zh":"马特甘诺(红)"},"intro":{"en":"[Grape Variety] The dark-skinned Mavrotgrano, meaning ‘black crisp’, was once almost extinct and now occupying just 2% of the vineyard area on the Greek island of Santorini.","zh":"[葡萄品种] 马特甘诺的名字意为“黑色(mavro)而清脆的(tragano)”。这种深色果皮的葡萄品种曾经一度面临绝种,现在也只占希腊圣托里尼岛葡萄园面积的2%。"},"article":{"en":"

[Grape Variety]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

The dark-skinned Mavrotgrano, meaning ‘black crisp’, was once almost extinct and now occupying just 2% of the vineyard area on the Greek island of Santorini.<\/p>\n\n

\"Mavrotragano
Image: Mavrotragano<\/i><\/center>
\n\n

The berries are small, sugar levels high and yields low, and the tannins need careful handling or they will be rustic and tough.<\/p>\n\n

It was originally used to add aroma to the island's sweet wines. Winemaker Haridimos Hatzidakis was the first to experiment with a dry varietal wine while working for Boutari in the mid-1980s. Paris Sigalas, meanwhile, was making an intense and aromatic sweet version. Both growers have regularly produced dry wines since the mid-1990s and have now been joined by a few others, including T-Oinos on the island of Tinos and Evangelos Gerovassiliou in Epanomi on the mainland, who includes a small amount of Mavrotragano with Limnio and Mavroudi in his top red Avaton.<\/p>\n\n

Dry varietal wines are distinctively rich in explosive, wild dark fruit and often earthy and spicy. The best wines are aromatic with fresh acidity and firm, chewy tannins, with a growing following and rising grape prices.<\/p>
\n\n

Wine Grapes<\/i> by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org<\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

[葡萄品种]<\/b> 其他译名:黑塔加诺\/摩塔伽诺<\/p>\n\n

马特甘诺的名字意为“黑色(mavro)而清脆的(tragano)”。这种深色果皮的葡萄品种曾经一度面临绝种,现在也只占希腊圣托里尼岛葡萄园面积的2%。<\/p>\n\n

\"马特甘诺葡萄\"
图片:马特甘诺<\/i><\/center>
\n\n

这个葡萄品种果实体积小、含糖量高、产量低,单宁需要精心控制,否则会显得粗糙不精致。<\/p>\n\n

这种葡萄原本用来为岛上出产的甜葡萄酒增加香气。20世纪80年代中期,酿酒师Haridimos Hatzidakis在Boutari工作时,率先试验用这种葡萄酿造单一品种干型葡萄酒。同一时期,Paris Sigalas则使用这种葡萄酿造风味强劲、芳香馥郁的甜葡萄酒。20世纪90年代起,两位酿酒师都不断酿造干型马特甘诺葡萄酒,现在又有一些酿酒商加入他们的行列,其中包括蒂诺斯岛(Tinos)的T-Oinos和位于希腊大陆上的Epanomi镇的Evangelos Gerovassiliou。后者会将少量马特甘诺与琳慕诗(Limnio)和马弗罗蒂(Mavroudi)加入其顶级红葡萄酒Avaton。<\/p>\n\n

单一品种干型马特甘诺葡萄酒带有如爆炸般的大量特殊的野生深色水果风味,并且通常带有泥土和辛辣的味道。品质最为出众的马特甘诺葡萄酒芳香馥郁、酸度清爽,并有坚实而有嚼劲的单宁,其果实价格也越来越高。<\/p>
\n\n

本词条来源:《酿酒葡萄》一书由葡萄酒大师Jancis Robinson、葡萄酒大师Julia Harding以及José Vouillamoz合著;www.winegrapes.org<\/a>。<\/p>
\n\n

(编译:冯帆\/Nina Fan Feng)<\/p>

"},"published":"2015-08-06","category":"Glossary","related_articles":"44","banner_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Glossary\/Grape-Varieties\/Mavrotragano-New-Wines-of-Greece.jpg","content_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Glossary\/Grape-Varieties\/Mavrotragano-New-Wines-of-Greece.jpg","author_id":"1"} [original_category] => Glossary [original_id] => 1159 [related_grapes] => [related_reviews] => [related_producer] => [related_regions] => [tags] => [related_articles] => 132400 [meta_keywords] => [related_tastings] => [display_author_bio] => [clear-classes] => clear-1 [processed] => basic [section_category] => Array ( [itemID] => 9630 [parentID] => 9629 [type] => menus [name] => en-grapes-zh [title] => Grapes [content] => [disp_order] => 9630 [visible] => 1 [url] => grapes [section_type] => 9627 [show] => 1 [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-2 clear-4 [urls] => Array ( [en] => grapes [zh] => 葡萄品种 ) [link] => /knowledge/grapes/ ) [display_category] => Array ( [title] => Grapes [link] => /en/knowledge/grapes/ ) [event_link] => [link_en] => /en/knowledge/grapes/mavrotragano-red [link_zh] => /zh/葡萄酒学习/葡萄品种/马特甘诺-红 [link] => /en/knowledge/grapes/mavrotragano-red [date_formatted] => 10 February 2016 ) [2] => Array ( [itemID] => 134804 [parentID] => 9591 [type] => article [name] => en-chinese-customs-rejects-fewer-wines-in-2015-zh-2015 [title] => Chinese customs rejects fewer wines in 2015 [content] =>

Fewer imported wines were rejected by Chinese customs in 2015 amid strong growth in wine import, shows official figures.

284 tons (123 batches) of imported wines were destroyed or returned by the Chinese Customs for quality and packaging problems in 2015, according to the reports released by China’s General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. The number has decreased by 10% from 2014 (314 tons, 165 batches).

Amid a 45% year-on-year increase in wine import volumes in 2015, the move suggests better awareness of Chinese customs regulations among foreign producers.

These ‘substandard’ wines came from 20 countries (see the graph below).Chinese customs rejects fewer wines in 2015

Spain (26%), France (11%) and Australia (10%) were again among the top sources of wines being blocked by Chinese customs. In volume wines from these countries account for 14%, 42% and 14% respectively of wines entering China in 2015.

The top reason for rejection was the excessive use of food preservative sorbic acid (21%).

According to China’s national standard on wine (GB15037), the allowed level of sorbic acid in wine is 200mg/L. This requirement is in line with the maximum level defined by EU food additives regulations.

The preservative, when consumed in too high quantities, could be potentially damaging to liver and kidney functions, according to China’s quarantine authority.

11% of those blocked by customs failed to reach China’s national standards for Sugar-free dry extract. The number is significantly lower than 2014, when the issue was the top reason for rejection (23%).

‘Excessive copper (15%)’ and ‘poor packaging (12%)’ were also main reasons to customs rejection in 2015, according to the reports.

The current national standard on wine was introduced in 2008. Authorities are looking into updating the regulation to make it more in line with international standards, as reported previously by DecanterChina.com.

In 2015, a total of 554m litres of wines were imported into China.

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Chateau Junding

Address: No.1, Junding Avenue, Penglai, Shandong, China
Scale of production: The estate includes 6000 mu (400 hectares) of grape vines (which are used to produce chateau wines), an 8000-square-metre multi-functional underground cellar, golf courts, tasting rooms, shops and a wine-themed hotel.
Website:
www.nava.cnTelephone: 0535-5759999 or 0535-5927902
Email: 695782885@qq.com

Key products and price ranges:

Chateau wines

Chateau Junding Santa Grace Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah blend), 799-999 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding Glory Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Petit Verdot blend), 599-799 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding Glory White 2012 (Chardonnay), 459-559 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding Oriental Red 2010 (80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot blend), 369-459 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding Oriental White 2012 (Riesling), 259-319 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding (dry red) 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah), 269-339 CNY/bottle
Chateau Junding (dry white) 2012 (Riesling), 199-229 CNY/bottle

Chateau Reifeng Auzias

Address: Liu Jia Gou County, Penglai, Yantai, Shandong Province
Scale of production: 100,000 bottles per year
Website:www.reifengauzias.comTelephone: 0535-5879939
Fax: 0535-5967987
Email: reifengauzias@reifengauzias.com

Key products and price ranges:

Cabernet Franc, dry, 300-800 CNY/bottle
Syrah, dry, 300-800 CNY/bottle
Chardonnay, dry, 100-500 CNY/bottle
*Chateau Reifeng-Auzias, Cabernet, Shandong 2010 was awarded International Trophy in the 2012 Decanter World Wine Awards.
Award category: Red Bordeaux Varietal under £10.

Treaty Port Vineyards

Address: Mulangou Village, Daxindian, Penglai, Shandong, China
Website:www.treatyport.comTelephone: 0535-2706888
Email: sales@treatyport.com

Key products and price ranges:

Estate red, dry (Grenache, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc blend), 180 CNY/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in July 2015.
Estate white, dry (Viognier, Chardonnay, Le Muscat à petit grain blend), 180 CNY/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in May 2015.
The Admiral, dry (Merlot), 500 CNY/bottle
The Commissioner, dry (Marselan), 500 CNY/bottle
Treaty Port Port, sweet, 150 CNY/bottle

Yantai Jinding Winery

Address: Fangyuan industrial zone, Haiyang city, Shandong
Scale of production: 1000 tons of wine per year; 150 tons of grape spirit per year
Website:www.china-fangyuan.comTelephone: 0535-3290009
Email: info_jdjy@china-fangyuan.com

Key products and price ranges:

Dry red and white wines, cognac, grape spirit and cherry wines. Products include table wines and middle and high-end wines for business occasions. 20-500 CNY/bottle

Click here to read an exclusive interview with Yi Fenghuang, Director of Yantai Grape and Wine Bureau.

[disp_order] => 133382 [visible] => 1 [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => https://decanter.s3.amazonaws.com/assets/images/news/Yantai/Yantai-wineries-slider.jpg [path] => assets/images/article/full [src] => /assets/images/article/full/remote_news-yantai-yantai-wineries-slider.jpg [width] => [height] => [dimensions] => [exists] => 1 [remote] => 1 ) [uri] => chinese-winery-directory-yantai [uri_en] => chinese-winery-directory-yantai [uri_zh] => 中国酒庄信息导览-烟台 [excerpt] => [related_tastings] => [display_author_bio] => [translator] => [original] => {"en":"\n\n
<\/center>
\n
Chateau Junding<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> No.1, Junding Avenue, Penglai, Shandong, China\n
Scale of production:<\/b> The estate includes 6000 mu (400 hectares) of grape vines (which are used to produce chateau wines), an 8000-square-metre multi-functional underground cellar, golf courts, tasting rooms, shops and a wine-themed hotel. \n
Website:<\/b> www.nava.cn<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-5759999 or 0535-5927902\n
Email:<\/b> 695782885@qq.com\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/p>

<\/center>
\n

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n<\/p>

Chateau wines<\/b> \n
Chateau Junding Santa Grace Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah blend), 799-999 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Glory Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Petit Verdot blend), 599-799 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Glory White 2012 (Chardonnay), 459-559 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Oriental Red 2010 (80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot blend), 369-459 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Oriental White 2012 (Riesling), 259-319 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding (dry red) 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah), 269-339 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding (dry white) 2012 (Riesling), 199-229 CNY\/bottle\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Chateau Reifeng Auzias<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Liu Jia Gou County, Penglai, Yantai, Shandong Province\n
Scale of production:<\/b> 100,000 bottles per year\n
Website:<\/b>
www.reifengauzias.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-5879939\n
Fax:<\/b> 0535-5967987\n
Email:<\/b> reifengauzias@reifengauzias.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Cabernet Franc, dry, 300-800 CNY\/bottle\n
Syrah, dry, 300-800 CNY\/bottle\n
Chardonnay, dry, 100-500 CNY\/bottle \n
*Chateau Reifeng-Auzias, Cabernet, Shandong 2010<\/b> was awarded International Trophy in the 2012 Decanter World Wine Awards. \n
Award category:<\/b> Red Bordeaux Varietal under £10.\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Treaty Port Vineyards<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Mulangou Village, Daxindian, Penglai, Shandong, China\n
Website:<\/b>
www.treatyport.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-2706888\n
Email:<\/b> sales@treatyport.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Estate red, dry (Grenache, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc blend), 180 CNY\/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in July 2015.\n
Estate white, dry (Viognier, Chardonnay, Le Muscat à petit grain blend), 180 CNY\/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in May 2015.\n
The Admiral, dry (Merlot), 500 CNY\/bottle \n
The Commissioner, dry (Marselan), 500 CNY\/bottle \n
Treaty Port Port, sweet, 150 CNY\/bottle \n\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Yantai Jinding Winery<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Fangyuan industrial zone, Haiyang city, Shandong\n
Scale of production:<\/b> 1000 tons of wine per year; 150 tons of grape spirit per year \n
Website:<\/b>
www.china-fangyuan.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-3290009\n
Email:<\/b> info_jdjy@china-fangyuan.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Dry red and white wines, cognac, grape spirit and cherry wines. Products include table wines and middle and high-end wines for business occasions. 20-500 CNY\/bottle\n\n<\/p>

Click here<\/a> to read an exclusive interview with Yi Fenghuang, Director of Yantai Grape and Wine Bureau.<\/i>\n<\/p>","zh":"\n

<\/center>
\n
中粮君顶酒庄有限公司<\/u>
Chateau Junding<\/span><\/center>
\n\n

地址:<\/b>山东省蓬莱市君顶大道1号\n
酒庄规模:<\/b>葡萄种植面积6000亩(用于酿造顶级酒庄酒), 8000平米多功能地下酒窖;此外还有18洞环湖高尔夫球场、专业品酒室、商店、葡萄酒文化主题酒店等等。\n
网站:<\/b>
www.nava.cn<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b> 0535-5759999 或0535-5927902\n
邮箱:<\/b> 695782885@qq.com\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n\n

主打产品:<\/b>\n<\/p>

酒庄酒系列<\/b>\n
君顶天悦 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,美乐,小味儿多,西拉),799~999元\/瓶\n
君顶尊悦 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,西拉,小味儿多),599~799元\/瓶\n
君顶尊悦 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(霞多丽),459~559元\/瓶\n
君顶东方 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠 80%,美乐 20%),369~459元\/瓶\n
君顶东方 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(雷司令),259~319元\/瓶\n
君顶 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,西拉),269~339元\/瓶 \n
君顶 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(雷司令),199~229元\/瓶\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
瑞枫奥塞斯(烟台)葡萄酒庄园有限公司<\/u>
Chateau Reifeng-Auzias<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省烟台市蓬莱市刘家沟镇\n
生产规模:<\/b>年产量10万瓶\n
网站:<\/b>
www.reifengauzias.com<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b> 0535-5879939\n
传真:<\/b> 0535-5967987\n
邮箱:<\/b> reifengauzias@reifengauzias.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>\n
品丽珠,干型 ,300~800元\/瓶\n
西拉,干型, 300~800元\/瓶\n
霞多丽,干型,100~500元\/瓶\n
*Chateau Reifeng-Auzias, Cabernet, Shandong 2010<\/b>于2012年获得Decanter世界葡萄酒大赛(Decanter World Wine Awards)最高奖项——国际奖(International Trophy)。\n
获奖类别:<\/b>10英镑以下波尔多红葡萄品种葡萄酒(Red Bordeaux under £10)\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
登龙红酒(蓬莱)有限公司<\/u>
Treaty Port Vineyards<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省蓬莱市大辛店镇木兰沟村丘山山谷\n
网址:<\/b>
www.treatyport.com<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b>0535-2706888\n
邮箱: <\/b>sales@treatyport.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>\n
城堡红系列,干型红葡萄酒(黑歌海娜,西拉,赤霞珠,品丽珠) 180元\/瓶 (新酒预计2015年7月灌装)\n
城堡白系列,干型白葡萄酒(维欧尼,霞多丽,小白玫瑰) 180元\/瓶 (新酒预计2015年5月灌装) \n
海军上将系列,干型红葡萄酒(梅乐) 500元\/瓶 \n
委员系列,干型红葡萄酒(马赛兰) 500元\/瓶 \n
波波甜酒,甜型葡萄酒 150元\/瓶 \n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
烟台金鼎葡萄酒业有限公司<\/u>
Yantai Jinding Winery<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省海阳市方圆工业园\n
生产规模:<\/b>年产葡萄酒1000吨,葡萄蒸馏酒150吨\n
网站:<\/b>
www.china-fangyuan.com<\/a>\n
联系电话:<\/b>0535-3290009\n
邮箱:<\/b>info_jdjy@china-fangyuan.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>干红、干白葡萄酒、白兰地、葡萄蒸馏酒及樱桃酒,产品分普通餐酒、中端用酒、高端商务用酒,价位从二十余元到五百余元每瓶\n\n<\/p>

点击这里<\/a>阅读烟台市葡萄与葡萄酒局局长衣凤凰独家采访。<\/i>\n<\/p>"} [author] => [date] => 1454976000 [checked] => 0 [complete] => {"id":"1089","title":{"en":"Chinese winery directory - Yantai","zh":"中国酒庄信息导览-烟台"},"intro":{"en":"Check out the basic information and key products of four of the top wineries in the Yantai region.","zh":"烟台四家主要酿酒商的档案以及主要产品信息。"},"article":{"en":"\n\n

<\/center>
\n
Chateau Junding<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> No.1, Junding Avenue, Penglai, Shandong, China\n
Scale of production:<\/b> The estate includes 6000 mu (400 hectares) of grape vines (which are used to produce chateau wines), an 8000-square-metre multi-functional underground cellar, golf courts, tasting rooms, shops and a wine-themed hotel. \n
Website:<\/b>
www.nava.cn<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-5759999 or 0535-5927902\n
Email:<\/b> 695782885@qq.com\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/p>

<\/center>
\n

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n<\/p>

Chateau wines<\/b> \n
Chateau Junding Santa Grace Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah blend), 799-999 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Glory Red 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Petit Verdot blend), 599-799 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Glory White 2012 (Chardonnay), 459-559 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Oriental Red 2010 (80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot blend), 369-459 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding Oriental White 2012 (Riesling), 259-319 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding (dry red) 2010 (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah), 269-339 CNY\/bottle\n
Chateau Junding (dry white) 2012 (Riesling), 199-229 CNY\/bottle\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Chateau Reifeng Auzias<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Liu Jia Gou County, Penglai, Yantai, Shandong Province\n
Scale of production:<\/b> 100,000 bottles per year\n
Website:<\/b>
www.reifengauzias.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-5879939\n
Fax:<\/b> 0535-5967987\n
Email:<\/b> reifengauzias@reifengauzias.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Cabernet Franc, dry, 300-800 CNY\/bottle\n
Syrah, dry, 300-800 CNY\/bottle\n
Chardonnay, dry, 100-500 CNY\/bottle \n
*Chateau Reifeng-Auzias, Cabernet, Shandong 2010<\/b> was awarded International Trophy in the 2012 Decanter World Wine Awards. \n
Award category:<\/b> Red Bordeaux Varietal under £10.\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Treaty Port Vineyards<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Mulangou Village, Daxindian, Penglai, Shandong, China\n
Website:<\/b>
www.treatyport.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-2706888\n
Email:<\/b> sales@treatyport.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Estate red, dry (Grenache, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc blend), 180 CNY\/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in July 2015.\n
Estate white, dry (Viognier, Chardonnay, Le Muscat à petit grain blend), 180 CNY\/bottle. The latest vintage will be bottled in May 2015.\n
The Admiral, dry (Merlot), 500 CNY\/bottle \n
The Commissioner, dry (Marselan), 500 CNY\/bottle \n
Treaty Port Port, sweet, 150 CNY\/bottle \n\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
Yantai Jinding Winery<\/span><\/center>
\n

Address:<\/b> Fangyuan industrial zone, Haiyang city, Shandong\n
Scale of production:<\/b> 1000 tons of wine per year; 150 tons of grape spirit per year \n
Website:<\/b>
www.china-fangyuan.com<\/a>\n
Telephone:<\/b> 0535-3290009\n
Email:<\/b> info_jdjy@china-fangyuan.com\n\n<\/p>

Key products and price ranges:<\/b>\n
Dry red and white wines, cognac, grape spirit and cherry wines. Products include table wines and middle and high-end wines for business occasions. 20-500 CNY\/bottle\n\n<\/p>

Click here<\/a> to read an exclusive interview with Yi Fenghuang, Director of Yantai Grape and Wine Bureau.<\/i>\n<\/p>","zh":"\n

<\/center>
\n
中粮君顶酒庄有限公司<\/u>
Chateau Junding<\/span><\/center>
\n\n

地址:<\/b>山东省蓬莱市君顶大道1号\n
酒庄规模:<\/b>葡萄种植面积6000亩(用于酿造顶级酒庄酒), 8000平米多功能地下酒窖;此外还有18洞环湖高尔夫球场、专业品酒室、商店、葡萄酒文化主题酒店等等。\n
网站:<\/b>
www.nava.cn<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b> 0535-5759999 或0535-5927902\n
邮箱:<\/b> 695782885@qq.com\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n\n

主打产品:<\/b>\n<\/p>

酒庄酒系列<\/b>\n
君顶天悦 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,美乐,小味儿多,西拉),799~999元\/瓶\n
君顶尊悦 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,西拉,小味儿多),599~799元\/瓶\n
君顶尊悦 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(霞多丽),459~559元\/瓶\n
君顶东方 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠 80%,美乐 20%),369~459元\/瓶\n
君顶东方 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(雷司令),259~319元\/瓶\n
君顶 高级干红葡萄酒 2010(赤霞珠,西拉),269~339元\/瓶 \n
君顶 高级干白葡萄酒 2012(雷司令),199~229元\/瓶\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
瑞枫奥塞斯(烟台)葡萄酒庄园有限公司<\/u>
Chateau Reifeng-Auzias<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省烟台市蓬莱市刘家沟镇\n
生产规模:<\/b>年产量10万瓶\n
网站:<\/b>
www.reifengauzias.com<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b> 0535-5879939\n
传真:<\/b> 0535-5967987\n
邮箱:<\/b> reifengauzias@reifengauzias.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>\n
品丽珠,干型 ,300~800元\/瓶\n
西拉,干型, 300~800元\/瓶\n
霞多丽,干型,100~500元\/瓶\n
*Chateau Reifeng-Auzias, Cabernet, Shandong 2010<\/b>于2012年获得Decanter世界葡萄酒大赛(Decanter World Wine Awards)最高奖项——国际奖(International Trophy)。\n
获奖类别:<\/b>10英镑以下波尔多红葡萄品种葡萄酒(Red Bordeaux under £10)\n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
登龙红酒(蓬莱)有限公司<\/u>
Treaty Port Vineyards<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省蓬莱市大辛店镇木兰沟村丘山山谷\n
网址:<\/b>
www.treatyport.com<\/a>\n
电话:<\/b>0535-2706888\n
邮箱: <\/b>sales@treatyport.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>\n
城堡红系列,干型红葡萄酒(黑歌海娜,西拉,赤霞珠,品丽珠) 180元\/瓶 (新酒预计2015年7月灌装)\n
城堡白系列,干型白葡萄酒(维欧尼,霞多丽,小白玫瑰) 180元\/瓶 (新酒预计2015年5月灌装) \n
海军上将系列,干型红葡萄酒(梅乐) 500元\/瓶 \n
委员系列,干型红葡萄酒(马赛兰) 500元\/瓶 \n
波波甜酒,甜型葡萄酒 150元\/瓶 \n\n\n\n<\/p>

<\/center>
\n
烟台金鼎葡萄酒业有限公司<\/u>
Yantai Jinding Winery<\/span><\/center>
\n

地址:<\/b>山东省海阳市方圆工业园\n
生产规模:<\/b>年产葡萄酒1000吨,葡萄蒸馏酒150吨\n
网站:<\/b>
www.china-fangyuan.com<\/a>\n
联系电话:<\/b>0535-3290009\n
邮箱:<\/b>info_jdjy@china-fangyuan.com\n<\/p>

主打产品:<\/b>干红、干白葡萄酒、白兰地、葡萄蒸馏酒及樱桃酒,产品分普通餐酒、中端用酒、高端商务用酒,价位从二十余元到五百余元每瓶\n\n<\/p>

点击这里<\/a>阅读烟台市葡萄与葡萄酒局局长衣凤凰独家采访。<\/i>\n<\/p>"},"published":"2015-05-02","category":"Glossary","related_articles":"1088,393,322,44","banner_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/news\/Yantai\/Yantai-wineries-slider.jpg","content_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/news\/Yantai\/Yantai-wineries-slider.jpg","author_id":"1"} [original_category] => Glossary [original_id] => 1089 [category] => [meta_title] => [meta_description] => [meta_keywords] => [tags] => [related_regions] => [related_grapes] => [related_reviews] => [related_producer] => [related_articles] => [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-3 [processed] => basic [section_category] => Array ( [itemID] => 62369 [parentID] => 9629 [type] => menus [name] => en-producers-zh [title] => Producers [content] => [disp_order] => 9633 [visible] => 1 [url] => producers [section_type] => 9627 [show] => 1 [clear-classes] => clear-1 [urls] => Array ( [en] => producers [zh] => 名庄档案 ) [link] => /knowledge/producers/ ) [display_category] => Array ( [title] => Producers [link] => /en/knowledge/producers/ ) [event_link] => [link_en] => /en/knowledge/producers/chinese-winery-directory-yantai [link_zh] => /zh/葡萄酒学习/名庄档案/中国酒庄信息导览-烟台 [link] => /en/knowledge/producers/chinese-winery-directory-yantai [date_formatted] => 9 February 2016 ) [4] => Array ( [itemID] => 133435 [parentID] => 9630 [type] => article [name] => en-okuzgozu-red-zh [title] => Oküzgözü (red) [content] =>

‘Bull’s eye’, the literal meaning of Öküzgözü, is a key Turkish variety well suited to the growing demand for lighter, more refreshing, characterful reds, best when any oak influence is a sleight of hand. But it is also possible to make full-bodied, more tannic, oak-aged wines that improve in bottle for up to 10 years, especially when the fruit is from Elazığ in eastern Anatolia, its likely region of origin.

Schioppettino

Öküzgözü is Turkey’s most widely planted dark-skinned variety, just ahead of Shiraz and Boğazkere. The big, fleshy berries can reach relatively high sugar levels and are used for both table and wine grapes. Whatever the style, the wines generally display aromatic fruit and a persistent freshness.

The bigger producers often make both styles of wine described above. For a juicy early-drinking style, try Doluca, Diren, Sevilen, Vinkara or Yazgan. For a more powerful, ageworthy wine, try especially Kavaklidere’s and Kayra’s top bottlings. Kavaklidere’s 2004 is looking very elegant now and Kayra’s Vintage 2010 still has a way to go to reveal its full finesse.

Wine Grapes by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org

[disp_order] => 133435 [visible] => 1 [author] => 132337 [translator] => 132341 [category] => [meta_title] => Oküzgözü (red) [meta_description] => [meta_keywords] => [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => https://decanter.s3.amazonaws.com/assets/images/Glossary/Grape-Varieties/Okuzgozu-Kavaklidere-Vineyards.jpg [path] => assets/images/article/full [src] => /assets/images/article/full/remote_glossary-grape-varieties-okuzgozu-kavaklidere-vineyards.jpg [width] => [height] => [dimensions] => [exists] => 1 [remote] => 1 ) [tags] => [related_articles] => 132400 [related_regions] => [related_grapes] => [related_reviews] => [related_producer] => [related_tastings] => [display_author_bio] => [uri_en] => okuzgozu-red [uri_zh] => 牛眼-红 [uri] => okuzgozu-red [date] => 1454976000 [excerpt] => ‘Bull’s eye’, the literal meaning of Öküzgözü, is a key Turkish variety well suited to the growing demand for lighter, more refreshing, characterful reds, best when any oak influence is a sleight of hand. [original] => {"en":"

[Grape Variety]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

‘Bull’s eye’, the literal meaning of Öküzgözü<\/b>, is a key Turkish<\/b> variety well suited to the growing demand for lighter, more refreshing, characterful reds, best when any oak influence is a sleight of hand. But it is also possible to make full-bodied, more tannic, oak-aged wines that improve in bottle for up to 10 years, especially when the fruit is from Elazığ <\/b>in eastern Anatolia<\/b>, its likely region of origin.\n\n<\/p>

\"Schioppettino\"
Image: Öküzgözü © www.winesofturkey.org<\/a><\/i><\/center>
\n\n

Öküzgözü is Turkey’s most widely planted dark-skinned variety, just ahead of Shiraz<\/b> and Boğazkere<\/b>. The big, fleshy berries can reach relatively high sugar levels and are used for both table and wine grapes. Whatever the style, the wines generally display aromatic fruit and a persistent freshness.\n\n<\/p>

The bigger producers often make both styles of wine described above. For a juicy early-drinking style, try Doluca, Diren, Sevilen, Vinkara or Yazgan. For a more powerful, ageworthy wine, try especially Kavaklidere’s and Kayra’s top bottlings. Kavaklidere’s 2004 is looking very elegant now and Kayra’s Vintage 2010 still has a way to go to reveal its full finesse. \n\n<\/p>

Wine Grapes<\/i> by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org<\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

[葡萄品种]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

“牛眼”是这个葡萄的名称“Öküzgözü”的字面意思。这是土耳其的最重要的葡萄品种之一,用来酿造淡雅、爽口而有个性的红葡萄酒——这种风格的葡萄酒正愈来愈受到欢迎,特别是经过几分精妙的橡木陈年之后。这种葡萄也可以酿造酒体丰满、单宁更重、经橡木桶陈年的葡萄酒,能够在瓶中进一步进化近十年,安纳托利亚(Anatolia)出产的牛眼葡萄尤其优质,这里很可能是这个品种的发源地。\n\n<\/p>

\"Schioppettino\"
图片:牛眼葡萄 ©
www.winesofturkey.org<\/a><\/i><\/center>
\n\n

牛眼葡萄是土耳其种植面积最广泛的深色果皮葡萄品种,比西拉(Shiraz)和宝佳斯科(Boğazkere)稍多一点。这个品种果粒硕大,果肉丰满,成熟时糖度较高,既可以作为鲜食葡萄,也可用于酿酒。无论酿造哪种风格的葡萄酒,这个品种通常都非常芬芳,鲜活的口感贯穿始终。\n\n<\/p>

通常大规模的酿酒商都会酿造上面提到的两个风格的牛眼葡萄酒。不过想尝试果汁丰富、适合尽早饮用的风格,不妨试一试Doluca、Diren、Sevilen、Vinkara或Yazgan酒庄出产的葡萄酒。而如果想尝试更加力量强劲、能够经久成年的牛眼葡萄酒,Kavaklidere和Kayra酒庄的顶级葡萄酒则是最好的选择。Kavaklidere酒庄的2004年份现在喝起来优雅有加,Kayra的2010年份还需要经过一段时间,才能充分体现其最美好细腻的姿态。\n\n<\/p>

本词条来源:《酿酒葡萄》一书由葡萄酒大师Jancis Robinson、葡萄酒大师Julia Harding以及José Vouillamoz合著;www.winegrapes.org<\/a>。<\/p>
\n\n

(编译:吴嘉溦\/Sylvia Wu)<\/p>

"} [checked] => 0 [complete] => {"id":"1148","title":{"en":"Öküzgözü (red)","zh":"牛眼(红)"},"intro":{"en":"[Grape Variety] ‘Bull’s eye’, the literal meaning of Öküzgözü, is a key Turkish variety well suited to the growing demand for lighter, more refreshing, characterful reds, best when any oak influence is a sleight of hand. ","zh":"[葡萄品种] “牛眼”是这个葡萄的名称“Öküzgözü”的字面意思。这是土耳其的最重要的葡萄品种之一,用来酿造淡雅、爽口而有个性的红葡萄酒"},"article":{"en":"

[Grape Variety]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

‘Bull’s eye’, the literal meaning of Öküzgözü<\/b>, is a key Turkish<\/b> variety well suited to the growing demand for lighter, more refreshing, characterful reds, best when any oak influence is a sleight of hand. But it is also possible to make full-bodied, more tannic, oak-aged wines that improve in bottle for up to 10 years, especially when the fruit is from Elazığ <\/b>in eastern Anatolia<\/b>, its likely region of origin.\n\n<\/p>

\"Schioppettino\"
Image: Öküzgözü ©
www.winesofturkey.org<\/a><\/i><\/center>
\n\n

Öküzgözü is Turkey’s most widely planted dark-skinned variety, just ahead of Shiraz<\/b> and Boğazkere<\/b>. The big, fleshy berries can reach relatively high sugar levels and are used for both table and wine grapes. Whatever the style, the wines generally display aromatic fruit and a persistent freshness.\n\n<\/p>

The bigger producers often make both styles of wine described above. For a juicy early-drinking style, try Doluca, Diren, Sevilen, Vinkara or Yazgan. For a more powerful, ageworthy wine, try especially Kavaklidere’s and Kayra’s top bottlings. Kavaklidere’s 2004 is looking very elegant now and Kayra’s Vintage 2010 still has a way to go to reveal its full finesse. \n\n<\/p>

Wine Grapes<\/i> by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org<\/a><\/p>

","zh":"

[葡萄品种]<\/b><\/p>\n\n

“牛眼”是这个葡萄的名称“Öküzgözü”的字面意思。这是土耳其的最重要的葡萄品种之一,用来酿造淡雅、爽口而有个性的红葡萄酒——这种风格的葡萄酒正愈来愈受到欢迎,特别是经过几分精妙的橡木陈年之后。这种葡萄也可以酿造酒体丰满、单宁更重、经橡木桶陈年的葡萄酒,能够在瓶中进一步进化近十年,安纳托利亚(Anatolia)出产的牛眼葡萄尤其优质,这里很可能是这个品种的发源地。\n\n<\/p>

\"Schioppettino\"
图片:牛眼葡萄 ©
www.winesofturkey.org<\/a><\/i><\/center>
\n\n

牛眼葡萄是土耳其种植面积最广泛的深色果皮葡萄品种,比西拉(Shiraz)和宝佳斯科(Boğazkere)稍多一点。这个品种果粒硕大,果肉丰满,成熟时糖度较高,既可以作为鲜食葡萄,也可用于酿酒。无论酿造哪种风格的葡萄酒,这个品种通常都非常芬芳,鲜活的口感贯穿始终。\n\n<\/p>

通常大规模的酿酒商都会酿造上面提到的两个风格的牛眼葡萄酒。不过想尝试果汁丰富、适合尽早饮用的风格,不妨试一试Doluca、Diren、Sevilen、Vinkara或Yazgan酒庄出产的葡萄酒。而如果想尝试更加力量强劲、能够经久成年的牛眼葡萄酒,Kavaklidere和Kayra酒庄的顶级葡萄酒则是最好的选择。Kavaklidere酒庄的2004年份现在喝起来优雅有加,Kayra的2010年份还需要经过一段时间,才能充分体现其最美好细腻的姿态。\n\n<\/p>

本词条来源:《酿酒葡萄》一书由葡萄酒大师Jancis Robinson、葡萄酒大师Julia Harding以及José Vouillamoz合著;www.winegrapes.org<\/a>。<\/p>
\n\n

(编译:吴嘉溦\/Sylvia Wu)<\/p>

"},"published":"2015-07-24","category":"Glossary","related_articles":"44","banner_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Glossary\/Grape-Varieties\/Okuzgozu-Kavaklidere-Vineyards.jpg","content_image":"https:\/\/decanter.s3.amazonaws.com\/assets\/images\/Glossary\/Grape-Varieties\/Okuzgozu-Kavaklidere-Vineyards.jpg","author_id":"1"} [original_category] => Glossary [original_id] => 1148 [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-2 clear-4 [processed] => basic [section_category] => Array ( [itemID] => 9630 [parentID] => 9629 [type] => menus [name] => en-grapes-zh [title] => Grapes [content] => [disp_order] => 9630 [visible] => 1 [url] => grapes [section_type] => 9627 [show] => 1 [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-2 clear-4 [urls] => Array ( [en] => grapes [zh] => 葡萄品种 ) [link] => /knowledge/grapes/ ) [display_category] => Array ( [title] => Grapes [link] => /en/knowledge/grapes/ ) [event_link] => [link_en] => /en/knowledge/grapes/okuzgozu-red [link_zh] => /zh/葡萄酒学习/葡萄品种/牛眼-红 [link] => /en/knowledge/grapes/okuzgozu-red [date_formatted] => 9 February 2016 ) [5] => Array ( [itemID] => 134795 [parentID] => 9635 [type] => article [name] => en-100-chinese-dishes-you-must-try-in-your-life-zh-100 [title] => 100 Chinese dishes you must try in your life [content] =>

During the Spring Festival, we are once again very busy organising and attending dinners. Traditional Chinese culture has strong farming culture influences, and in this culture, ‘eating’ is a very important activity. Whether there is enough food for the year cannot simply be controlled by hard work, therefore our ancestors had full expectations of food, and invented all kinds of food to celebrate the festivals.The cover of Gourmet‘s Luck

In my memory, the most unforgettable ‘eating’ occasion was when my parents took me to a canteen. I had a portion of noodles with gravy whilst standing by a corner of a table; the reason that I still remember this clearly is because this was the first time I had dinner outside home. There were three groups of people eating on the same table; someone sitting there eating had someone else standing right behind him waiting for the seat…

For a long period of time, ‘eating’ was just for the energy to keep on working. In this case, thinking about ‘what I am eating’ or ‘how do I eat it’ was not important at all. And different dishes were just some names on the restaurant menu; nobody cares about the ‘authentic taste’ of them. In the even worse cases, it wasn’t just the people who ordered the food who didn’t know how the dishes were cooked, the chefs themselves also - deliberately or unintentionally - ‘didn’t know’ about it.

Nowadays, people normally wouldn’t have the problem of starving, and don’t need to worry about how to get three meals a day, thus more and more people are raising their expectations of food. Some of them begin to study intensively about ‘eating’, even though they don’t work in the food industry. There are endless innovations across a variety of dishes, making the originally complicated Chinese cuisines more difficult to understand - and there is nothing left in terms of understanding the classic dishes apart from the names. I pay close attention to Chinese cuisines because wine and Chinese food matching is one of the topics I am studying, and my research about Chinese food is about much more than whether it tastes delicious. However, I am not an expert of Chinese food, and I always encounter questions when studying a certain dish, that I couldn’t find the answer for.

Luckily, I recently received a book entitled Gourmet’s Luck口福, which gives details about ‘100 Chinese dishes you must try in your lifetime’. What really touchs me in the book is that most all of the dishes listed in the contents are the ones I am familiar with. None of them are expensive kinds of dishes – they are all ‘ordinary’ and ‘won’t be talked about by the upper classes’. For example, ‘fish-flavoured shredded pork with chilli sauce’ is on the list – this is a very famous and popular dish, which once even became the centre of the price war between many restaurants. However, there aren’t many restaurants that can actually use ‘pickled pepper, onion, ginger, garlic, salt, sugar, vinegar and soy sauce to stir-fry the shredded port until the fish-flavour appears’. When the guests concentrate too much on the price on the menu, rather than the taste in their mouth, the restaurants would lose the traditional flavour.fish-flavoured shredded pork with chilli sauce

Knowing that I can afford the dishes listed in this book, I feel very relaxed reading it, just like the tone of the book itself. However, thinking about some wine introduction books, that also use titles like ‘100 wines…’, but the wines on their list are either impossible to find on the market, or forbiddingly expensive. It is such a shame!

The author of Gourmet’s Luck recommended 100 famous Chinese dishes from a gourmet’s perspective – it is not an easy task to pick up 100 dishes from the immense list of Chinese food; the author must have bared the pain of not including some of the dishes. Moreover, the author explains the reason for recommending each dish, and how to appreciate them. The author also interacts with chefs who are famous for those dishes, asks for the key steps of cooking the dishes and what the chefs learnt from cooking it. All of these make the book a guide for people like me who love Chinese food but couldn’t find the door to get into that world. Through this book, we find a direct and easy way to enter the palace of Chinese food.

For each dish in the book, there are the ingredients, cooking skills, taste and characters, the origins or legends of the dish, related history and geography knowledge, local customs and practices, and how we can tell if it is authentic through appreciation. The book also explains different styles and techniques of one dish, and provides the photos of the materials and the finished dish, making it easy to understand. For the professional terms used in the book, there are also explanations. For example, when introducing the dish ‘home style sea cucumber’, it mentions the use of ‘normal soup’, which leads to the difference of ‘clear soup’, ‘milk-white soup’, ‘chicken soup’ and ‘normal soup’.

Gourmet’s Luck doesn’t just bring us the gourmet’s luck to enjoy delicious food, but also provides support to our study of introducing wine to Chinese food.

So, please let’s stop using tannic red wines to pair with squirrel-shaped Mandarin Fish with sweet and sour sauce; though the two are both lovely when tasted separately.

[disp_order] => 134795 [visible] => 1 [uri] => 100-chinese-dishes-you-must-try-in-your-life [date] => 1454976000 [excerpt] => During the Spring Festival, we are once again very busy organising and attending dinners. Traditional Chinese culture has strong farming culture influences, and in this culture, ‘eating’ is a very important activity. [author] => 132344 [translator] => 132345 [category] => 133519 [meta_title] => 100 Chinese dishes you must try in your life [meta_description] => [meta_keywords] => [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => 134794_gourmets-luck-cover-and-fish-flavoured-shredded-pork-with-chilli-sauce.jpg [path] => assets/images/article/full [src] => /assets/images/article/full/134794_gourmets-luck-cover-and-fish-flavoured-shredded-pork-with-chilli-sauce.jpg?1454957190 [width] => 650 [height] => 444 [dimensions] => width="650" height="444" [exists] => 1 ) [tags] => [related_articles] => [related_regions] => [related_grapes] => [related_reviews] => [related_producer] => [related_tastings] => [display_author_bio] => 1 [uri_en] => 100-chinese-dishes-you-must-try-in-your-life [uri_zh] => 今生必食的100道中国菜 [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-5 [processed] => basic [section_category] => Array ( [itemID] => 9635 [parentID] => 0 [type] => menus [name] => en-columns-zh [title] => Columns [content] => [disp_order] => 9635 [visible] => 1 [url] => columns [section_type] => 108219 [show] => 1 [clear-classes] => clear-1 clear-3 [urls] => Array ( [en] => columns [zh] => 名家专栏 ) [link] => /columns/ [children] => Array ( ) ) [display_category] => Array ( [title] => Demei's view - wine communication from a Chinese winemaker [link] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/ ) [categoryDetails] => Array ( [itemID] => 133519 [parentID] => 9635 [type] => Column [name] => demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker [title] => Demei's view - wine communication from a Chinese winemaker [content] =>

LI Demei, associate professor of Wine Tasting and Enology in Beijing Agriculture College and invited teacher at ESA Angers, France. He obtained Master diploma for Fruit Tree Science, and Engineer for Viti-Oeno-Economie in ENITA de Bordeaux. Demei had his training in Chateaux Palmer, and visited almost all the wine regions in the world. He is aiming to create a dialogue with the consumer with wine.

[disp_order] => 133517 [visible] => 1 [meta_title] => [meta_description] => [meta_keywords] => [author] => 132344 [column_content] =>

Demei's View - Wine Communication from a Chinese Winemaker

Read the Chinese wine authority's fortnightly column on the latest trends of Chinese market.

[tags] => [name_en] => demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker [name_zh] => 德美说酒-一个中国酿酒师眼中的葡萄酒 [checked] => 0 [first] => 1 [last] => 1 [clear-classes] => [processed] => full [link_en] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/ [link_zh] => /zh/名家专栏/德美说酒-一个中国酿酒师眼中的葡萄酒/ [link] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/ [authorDetails] => Array ( [itemID] => 132344 [parentID] => 0 [type] => author [name] => li-demei-李德美 [title] => LI Demei / 李德美 [content] =>

Demei LI, associate professor of Wine Tasting and Enology in Beijing Agriculture College and invited teacher at ESA Angers, France. He obtained Master diploma for Fruit Tree Science, and Engineer for Viti-Oeno-Economie in ENITA de Bordeaux. Demei had his training in Chateaux Palmer, and visited almost all the wine regions in the world. He is aiming to create a dialogue with the consumer with wine.

Demei was the first chef wine maker and technique director for Chinese-French government-joint venture project, Sino-French Demonstration Vineyards and winery, and is the member of the Chinese Wine Technique Committee, and the member of National Wine Judge Board. Demei is vice-general-secretary of China Wine Association and Vice-general-secretary of Chinese viticulture Society. Consulting for several vineyards in China, and one wine won International Trophy in Decanter World Wine Award in London 2011. He won 2012 Wine Intelligence 10-for-10 Business Award and RVF’s Man of the year in Chinese wine industry. He was invited as the judge for several wine challenges in Singapore, HK and in Europe. Demei was invited by the organizer from Wine for Future, wine business international as well as some of French, Italian, Portuguese and New Zealand’s wine association to speak on Chinese preference on wine.

Demei started to write for the Wine Review of Singapore 10 years ago, and today he is one of the most famous wine writers in China, wine columnist for several wine magazine and news. He published ‘wine-communication from a Chinese winemaker’ and ‘Wine Grapes Varieties’.

[disp_order] => 132344 [visible] => 1 [complete] => {"id":"14","about":{"en":"

Demei LI, associate professor of Wine Tasting and Enology in Beijing Agriculture College and invited teacher at ESA Angers, France. He obtained Master diploma for Fruit Tree Science, and Engineer for Viti-Oeno-Economie in ENITA de Bordeaux. Demei had his training in Chateaux Palmer, and visited almost all the wine regions in the world. He is aiming to create a dialogue with the consumer with wine.\n<\/p>

Demei was the first chef wine maker and technique director for Chinese-French government-joint venture project, Sino-French Demonstration Vineyards and winery, and is the member of the Chinese Wine Technique Committee, and the member of National Wine Judge Board. Demei is vice-general-secretary of China Wine Association and Vice-general-secretary of Chinese viticulture Society. Consulting for several vineyards in China, and one wine won International Trophy in Decanter World Wine Award in London 2011. He won 2012 Wine Intelligence 10-for-10 Business Award and RVF’s Man of the year in Chinese wine industry. He was invited as the judge for several wine challenges in Singapore, HK and in Europe. Demei was invited by the organizer from Wine for Future, wine business international as well as some of French, Italian, Portuguese and New Zealand’s wine association to speak on Chinese preference on wine.\n\n<\/p>

Demei started to write for the Wine Review of Singapore 10 years ago, and today he is one of the most famous wine writers in China, wine columnist for several wine magazine and news. He published ‘wine-communication from a Chinese winemaker’ and ‘Wine Grapes Varieties’.\n<\/p>","zh":"供职于北京农学院,讲授葡萄酒相关课程,法国ESA大学客座教师。在法国留学期间曾经在宝玛酒庄进行实习。留学于美国、法国,走访了世界主要葡萄酒产区。致力于酿造葡萄酒与消费者进行对话。\n\n

担任
\n中国酒业协会葡萄酒分会副秘书长,
\n中国农学会葡萄分会副秘书长,
\n中国葡萄酒技术委员会委员,
\n中国酒庄联盟副秘书长,
\n中国酿酒标准化委员会葡萄酒分委会委员,
\n国家葡萄酒产品质量认证评委,
\n国家葡萄酒一级品酒师,
\n国家葡萄酒高级酿酒师,<\/p>\n\n

担任多项葡萄酒大赛评委主席,并在“wine for \nfuture”“ProWine”等国际葡萄酒活动以及法国、意大利、葡萄牙以及新西兰等葡萄酒产区进行讲解“中国葡萄酒消费者口味倾向”巡回演\n讲,2012荣获世界葡萄酒商业十佳人物奖,《RVF葡萄酒评论》中国葡萄酒杰出贡献奖,《葡萄酒》杂志中国葡萄酒界风云人物。<\/p>\n\n

曾担任首任中法政府合作葡萄种植与酿酒示范农场首席酿酒师。目前担任多家酒庄技术顾问,指导酿造的“加贝兰”葡萄酒获得2011伦敦葡萄酒国际大赛国际金奖。<\/p>\n\n

著有《深度品鉴葡萄酒》<\/b>、《酿酒葡萄品种学》<\/b>等专著,参加制订《国家职业标准——酿酒师》<\/b>、《国家职业标准——品酒师》,<\/b>在多家葡萄酒专业杂志开设有专栏。<\/p>"},"name":{"en":"","zh":"李德美 \/ LI Demei"},"photo":""} [checked] => 0 [meta_title] => LI DemeiLI Demei / 李德美 [meta_description] => [meta_keywords] => [original_id] => 14 [image] => Array ( [filename] => li_demei.jpg [path] => assets/images/author/full [src] => /assets/images/author/162/li_demei.jpg?1453469528 [width] => 1200 [height] => 1547 [dimensions] => width="1200" height="1547" [exists] => 1 ) [excerpt] =>

Demei LI, associate professor of Wine Tasting and Enology in Beijing Agriculture College and invited teacher at ESA Angers, France. He obtained Master diploma for Fruit Tree Science, and Engineer for... [tags] => [name_en] => li-demei-李德美 [name_zh] => 李德美-li-demei [first] => 1 [last] => 1 [clear-classes] => [processed] => full [page_links] => Array ( [en] => /en/author/li-demei-李德美/ [zh] => /zh/author/李德美-li-demei/ ) [link] => /en/author/li-demei-李德美/ [thumbnail] => Array ( [filename] => li_demei.jpg [path] => assets/images/author/full [src] => /assets/images/author/162/li_demei.jpg?1453469528 [width] => 1200 [height] => 1547 [dimensions] => width="1200" height="1547" [exists] => 1 ) [pagination] => PaginationModule Object ( [moduleName:protected] => pagination [hasNext:protected] => 1 [nextLink:protected] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/2/ [nextLabel:protected] => Next page [hasPrevious:protected] => [previousLink:protected] => [previousLabel:protected] => Previous page [showNextLink:protected] => [showPrevLink:protected] => [pages:protected] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [active] => 1 [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/ [label] => 1 ) [1] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/2/ [label] => 2 ) [2] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/3/ [label] => 3 ) [3] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/4/ [label] => 4 ) [4] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/5/ [label] => 5 ) [5] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/6/ [label] => 6 ) [6] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/7/ [label] => 7 ) [7] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/8/ [label] => 8 ) [8] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/9/ [label] => 9 ) [9] => Array ( [active] => [link] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/10/ [label] => 10 ) ) [type:protected] => simple [template:protected] => /en/author/andrew-jefford/[page/] [items:protected] => 140 [total:protected] => 14 [page:protected] => 1 [limit:protected] => 10 [limit_first:protected] => 10 [translationSection:protected] => general [debug:protected] => [hasLabels] => 1 ) ) [page_links] => Array ( [en] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/ [zh] => /zh/名家专栏/德美说酒-一个中国酿酒师眼中的葡萄酒/ ) ) [event_link] => [link_en] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/100-chinese-dishes-you-must-try-in-your-life [link_zh] => /zh/名家专栏/德美说酒-一个中国酿酒师眼中的葡萄酒/今生必食的100道中国菜 [link] => /en/columns/demeis-view-wine-communication-from-a-chinese-winemaker/100-chinese-dishes-you-must-try-in-your-life [date_formatted] => 9 February 2016 ) [6] => Array ( [itemID] => 134800 [parentID] => 134705 [type] => article [name] => en-wset-level-2-chardonnay-grape-climatic-winery-influence-most-important-regions-zh-wset [title] => WSET Level 2: Chardonnay grape – climatic, winery influence, most important regions [content] =>

The second session of my WSET Level two course starts with a glass of Chardonnay from Pouilly-Fuissé, France, and another glass of Chardonnay from Marlborough, New Zealand. A good way to start the day. The differences between the creamy French wine and the crispy New Zealand wine presented me for the first time with the unusualness of the Chardonnay grape variety, which offers hundreds of possibilities when grown in different conditions and made with varies viticulture and viniculture techniques.

Vineyard at Sonoma country, California, USA

Viniculture

Chardonnay is quite adaptable. It is not very aromatic itself, but very expressive when influenced by winemaking techniques. A typical process called malolacticfermentation is used to soften harsh acids and bring out dairy flavours. Another process is called ‘on the lees’ – which I’d seen on wine labels, but hadn’t understood. The wine is left on the dead yeast cells after fermentation, or lees, which gives the flavours of butter and toast to Chardonnay. Oak-aged Chardonnay adds flavours of spice, toast and vanilla, depending on what oak was used.

Regions

France

Burgundy produces arguably the most expressive Chardonnay in the world, and their entry level wines are usually labelled as Bourgogne. In cool Chablis, a sub region at the north end of Burgundy, Chardonnay of high acidity has pronounced notes of smoke, flint and minerals, particularly those labelled [from the vineyards of] Premier Cru or Grand Cru.

In Côte d’Or, which has a moderate climate, at the heart of white Burgundy makes Chardonnay fuller in body, with notes of white stone and tropical fruit accompanied by savoury notes. Meursault and Puligny-Montrachet are among the most famous villages. Le Montrachet [a Grand Cru] vineyard’s Chardonnays are arguably the world’s finest white wines and the most expensive ones too.

The Mâconnais at the south end of White Burgundy produces large volumes, affordable Chardonnay wines labelled as Macon. At Pouilly-Fuissé village, steep sun trap slopes and warm climate at the south of the Mâconnais brings full-bodied Chardonnay wines with tropical fruit and oak flavours.

Rest of the world

In Australia, Yarra Valley in Victoria, the Adelaide Hills region in South Western Australia and the Margaret River region in Western Australia make Chardonnay wines of various styles. Australian Chardonnay usually has pronounced citrus and melon notes. The ripe styles of Chardonnay are being left behind in Australia in favour of leaner wines, with more acidity and freshness.

New Zealand’s Marlborough is an important region for premium Chardonnay wines, with crisp acidity and pronounced tropical fruit notes.

In the US, premium Chardonnay wines are from California, including from the sub regions of Russian River, Sonoma and Carneros. Californian Chardonnay can be split into two styles:

- the full-bodied, rich fruit flavoured and heavily oaked
- savoury, lean and with-strained that resembles the Côte d’Or

Chile’s Casablanca Valley, Argentina’s Mendoza and South Africa’s Walker Bay are also producing high-quality Chardonnay wines, as their cool climates slow down the ripening, and allow the grape variety’s flavours to build up through time.

Inexpensive Chardonnay wines from South Eastern Australia, South Africa’s Western Cape, America’s California, Chile’s Central Valley, France’s Pays d’Oc, Southern Italy and Argentina are getting increasingly popular in the Chinese market and are easily accessible in supermarkets and online shopping websites. Most of these wines are unoaked, or the oak flavours are from oak staves or chips. They can be paired with a light dinner course such as steamed fish or scallop salad.

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Wine is an enduring activity. The Chave family first made wine in the Rhône in 1481, while the Ricasoli family acquired its Brolio estate, today the biggest in Chianti Classico, in 1141. Schloss Vollrads sold wine to the St Viktor Monastery in Mainz in 1211; Schloss Johannisberg’s vineyards were documented in 817.

Riesling Fellowship tastingWhat, then, of transitions in a perennial agricultural activity of this sort? There are two options. If business is going well, transitions should be seamless, traditions respectfully refined. If business is going badly, by contrast, all change.

German wine’s corroded image, as the twentieth century drew to a close, demanded the latter approach. The hapless industrialisation of German wine proved a dead end. A vast sugar-drainage operation has been the main practical effect of the change, with just under 67 per cent of all German wine from the 2014 vintage being classified as trocken (dry) or halbtrocken (half-dry).

Initiatives stressing change, meanwhile, have proliferated. Generation Riesling is an organisation for German wine producers who are under 35 (there are now, ten years from its inception, over 500 members), and the Riesling Fellowship is Germany’s way of celebrating apostles of ‘the new Germany’ among producers and opinion-formers. Both were feted at a January 28th tasting and dinner at London’s Vintners’ Hall.

Andi Weigand of Iphofen, Generation Riesling

Symbols of change glared that evening. There were no green wool suits or felt hats; indeed one of the Generation Riesling producers, Andi Weigand of Iphofen in Franconia, rocked up in a collarless shirt and reversed baseball cap – cruel to those of us who had struggled, as instructed on the invitation, into our unfamiliar suits. Couldn’t the Fellowship have stipulated collarless shirts and reversed baseball caps for all?

Wine ranges of 30 different bottlings seem to be history: most have been pared back to half-a-dozen or so wines. Dry, of course, was the order of the night – and it wasn’t just Riesling on offer. Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir) was in, as is Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc), with a seasoning of Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris), Silvaner, Lemberger and even Gutedel (Chasselas). The change in wine labeling is stark, too. Adieu those decorous, hand-coloured nineteenth-century label illustrations; auf wiedersehen to ornate heraldic lions, eagles and shields. In their place, lots of big, blocky typography and plain colours. (A bit dull, frankly.)

The hypersyllabic vineyard verbiage we all grew up with is fighting for survival against what we could broadly call concept cuvees, which can be as difficult to work out (one of Tobias Rickes’ Nahe wines, a Bacchus-Kerner blend, was called ‘Kick off’); geological terms are used, too, with almost French abandon.

Even the anointed Fellows cultivate youthful insolence. Last year, Stuart Pigott stupefied the throng by castigating British World War Two bombing policies, and the Churchillian ‘myth’, in his acceptance speech; this year the New York Riesling evangelist Paul Grieco managed not one but two gratuitous uses of the ‘f-word’ in his own acceptance speech. You could hear dozens of ghostly Masters of the Worshipful Company of Vintners gasping in their graves.

There was a tasting, too, of the wines of ten Generation Riesling producers from five different German regions (Baden, Franken, Nahe, Pfalz and Württemberg), with a sprinkling of further Generation Riesling wines with dinner. These were of mixed quality, which is unsurprising; few of us have hit the summits of professional achievement by 35. (Tasting notes for some of the best are given below.) By the end, though, a heretical question of my own was beginning to nag.

They come, it's true, as a relief at first, those very pure, pristine dry whites: they’re the colour of thin air, they’re all politely pitched at around 12.5%, and they tend to smell and taste of cleanliness itself, which is somewhere between a neutral sappiness of deciduous woodland in very early spring and the smell of fresh laundry. After a while, though, I found myself struggling to distinguish them in tasting notes. Then, a little later, I realised I couldn’t really tell which German wine region I was in any more. If everything is sappy and spotless and dry and around 12.5%, from north to south, haven’t we lost as much as we've gained? Might ‘the Big Dry’ not make German wine more samey?

I puzzled this over on the way home. Maybe the producers are still finding their way forward with dry wines, and most sensibly begin from a point of caution: clean and fresh is best. After trust has been established, the push towards greater stylistic expression can begin.

Or maybe we drinkers simply have to re-learn our German wines, and stop looking for differently shaped and contoured arabesques of fruit in them, and start to hunt for secondary complexities and nuances, hidden inside a tautness of contour and a new sheerness of flavour.

Riesling, happily, seems to suffer less from pristine homogeneity than Weissburgunder, Grauburgunder, Silvaner and Gutedel; with Riesling you can still more or less pitch for a particular region.

And there was no questioning the sincerity of these young producers in their search for terroir expression. ‘I am Generation Riesling,’ said Alexander Pflüger (Pfalz), ‘but my father was Generation Everything. They tried to do everything well. We’ve simplified varieties; we skip the system of Prädikats and go straight to origin. The quality has to be there, but it is the individualism and authenticity of the wines which we are looking for.’ ‘Nobody can take our soil or our climate to New Zealand and all the other places,’ pointed out Jan Eymael of Pfeffingen (Pfalz). ‘What we do best is based on our soil and microclimate – and Riesling.’ Let’s give the new guard a little time.

(Go to the next page to see the tasting notes)


Generation Riesling Picks

2014 Weissburgunder Trocken, Emmerich Koebernik

An exceptionally good Weissburgunder from the talented Christiane Koebernik, based at Waldböckelheim in the Nahe: not simply sappy, clean and pristine, but with a succulence to it as well, and subtle apricot and apple fruit. 89

2014 Riesling Vom Tonschiefer Trocken, Emmerich Koebernik

The slate-grown Nahe Riesling is pure, refined and lean, with smoky scents and alluringly citrussy, leafy flavours devoid of rawness or bitterness. 90

2014 Riesling Vom Porphyr Feinherb, Emmerich Koebernik

From a steeply sloping vineyard of soils derived from volcanic materials, this was a pristine, crisp-focus off-dry Nahe Riesling (Feinherb is defined at Koebernik as up to 20 g/l residual sugar) with rose and wild strawberry scents and flavours. The finish swings round towards pithy pink grapefruit, and has the kind of length which suggests generous extract. 93

2013 Spätburgunder Vom Löss Lehm, Emmerich Koebernik

The pick of the reds served with dinner thanks, I’m almost tempted to say, to its lack of (or sane) ambition: lightly coloured, soft, supple, round and drinkable rather than dark, taut and forbiddingly oaky. 89

2015 Weissburgunder Quarzit, Pflüger

Another rewarding Pinot Blanc (from Pfalz, this time): peachy, spicy and rich, though it finishes dry, while the extreme youth of the bottling gives its acidity a mouthwatering, fruited density. 89

2015 Riesling Buntsandstein, Pflüger

I loved this: it was vinous and sappy, almost like a Sancerre or a Chassagne might be, yet at the same time it had that classic Riesling amplitude of fruit, which under these skies and in these sandstone soils resulted in explosive orange characters. Again, its infancy is a plus: race it to table. 90

2015 Herrenberg Grosse Lage Riesling, Pflüger

Very clean, dry and drinkable (limestone soils almost evoke Alsace here), packed with slowly unfolding spice, and with orchard fruits dressed with just a squeeze of pineapple from that Pfalz sunshine. 90

2014 Riesling, Ungstein, Pfeffingen

Soft, chewy and delicious, packed with plush orange, a Pflaz wine that shows that ‘dry’ need not mean either neutral or austere. 89

2012 Geysersberg Grosses Gewächs Riesling, Winegut Winter

From a cool clay site in Rheinhessen, this was a dignified, dense, closely layered and resonantly dry Riesling which evoked stone and other non-fruit notes better than any of the other wines at the dinner. 91

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Andrew Jefford is a columnist for both Decanter magazine and www.decanter.com, Jefford has been writing and broadcasting about wine (as well as food, whisky, travel and perfume) since the 1980s, winning many awards – the latest for his work as a columnist.

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Jefford on Monday

Award-winning wine writer Andrew Jefford’s Monday column on DecanterChina.com.

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Andrew Jefford is a columnist for both Decanter magazine and www.decanter.com, Jefford has been writing and broadcasting about wine (as well as food, whisky, travel and perfume) since the 1980s, winning many awards – the latest for his work as a columnist. After 15 months as a senior research fellow at Adelaide University between 2009 and 2010, Andrew is currently writing a book on Australia’s wine landscape and terroirs. He lives in the Languedoc, on the frontier between the Grès de Montpellier and Pic St Loup zones.

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This old, dark-skinned variety, a grandparent of Carmenère, goes by many names (Braucol, Fer Servadou, Hère, Mansois, Pinenc) and is most commonly associated with southwest France and appellations such as Marcillac, Gaillac, Madiran and St-Mont, often as part of a blend (eg, with Syrah or Gamay).

Gaillac vineyards and Fer grapeImage: Gaillac vineyards (left) and Fer grape (right) by BerndtF,
and adapted under the Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 Unported license.

Though its origins are most likely in Spanish Basque country, in Marcillac it shines as a deep coloured varietal wine with a superb wild side.

You might find similarities with Cabernet Franc and it can be on the rustic side, with lively fruit flavours both red and black. Tannins are often firm but there’s usually a fine freshness that makes it a delicious supper wine. Research suggests that Fer is rich in catechins and procyanidols, thought to inhibit cardiovascular disease.

The name probably derives from the Latin ferus meaning ‘wild’ (because it was domesticated from wild vines) rather than from the French word meaning ‘iron’ (referring to the hardness of the vine’s wood).

Try examples from Domaines Laurens, Genouillac, du Cros, des Costes Rouges, du Mioula, the Cave Coopérative des Vignerons du Vallon and Le Vieux Porche.

Wine Grapes by Jancis Robinson MW, Julia Harding MW and José Vouillamoz; www.winegrapes.org

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Brettanomyces

Brett is a sturdy yeast able to thrive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments at wine alcohol levels with little sustenance.

Reds are particularly at risk due to their pH levels and use of oak (where Brett can live). It is responsible for off-aromas ranging from spice and smoke to animal, specifically horse.

Unfortunately, Pinot Noir is particularly sensitive and a little Brett will ruin its delicate fruit, perfume, and therefore, its sense of place, as it does for all infected wines. (Please note that Brett can be found in any wine and is not just limited to Burgundy.)

Fortunately, Brett can be eliminated by practicing good hygiene in the winery, especially for oak barrels; using adequate SO2; and filtering or adding of DMDC (dimethyl dicarbonate) prior to bottling.

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